The Second International Faecal Sludge Management Conference was held in Durban from the 29th to the 31st of October 2012. 320 delegates from around the world shared ideas and discussed challenges and opportunities in on-site sanitation.

Below you find the Conference Report and the list of papers in alphabetical order by main author last name.

The available FSM2 conference presentations in PDF can be downloaded at

Videos from many of the presentations are also available here:


1. Baby, B., Vinod, M.S. - Research on self-sustained etoilet for households/urban-semi urban public/community sanitation.

2. Benoit, N. - Individuals' perception & the potential of urine as a fertilizer in Ethekwini, South Africa

3. Blackett, I., Giltner, S., Warsono,M., Darmawan, B., Tayler, K. - Development of urban septage management models in Indonesia

4. Bulbo, M., Yemaneh,A., Dalecha T., Amlaku, T., Krasteva K., Langergraber. G., Otterpohl, R. - Experiments on co-composting of human excreta with bio-char in Arba Minch, Ethiopia

5. Campos, L.C., Jain, V., Schuetze, M. - Stimulating nutrient and energy fluxes in non-networked sanitation systems

6. Cokar, M., Kallos, M.S., Gates, I.D. - The social aspects of designing an anaerobic microdigester with combined thermoelectric heat and power generation to convert human excreta to electricity, heat, methane and fertilizer

7. Dalecha, T., Assefa, E., Krasteva, K., Langergraber, G. - Experiments on struvite precipitation, application and economic analysis in Arba Minch, Ethiopia

8. de Silva Muñoz, L. - Conversion of faecal sludge to liquid fuels. Why and how could it work for small-scale application?

9. Dentel, S.K., Marzooghi, S., Shi, C.J. - Breathable membrane enclosures for faecal sludge stabilization

10. Deshusses, M.A, Colón, J., Forbis-Stokes, A.A., Ouksel, L.S. - Effective sewage sanitation eith low CO2 footprint

11. Foutch, G.L., Islam, Md.W., Podichetty, J.T., Johannes, A. H., Reichard., M. - Faecal sludge treatment by viscous heating

12. Foxon, K.M., Brouckaert, C.J., Wood, K. – Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

13. Frenoux, C., Tsitsikalis, A. – Domestic private faecal sludge emptying services in Cambodia: between market efficiency and regulation needs for sustainable management

14. Garoma, T., Williams, C. – Enhanced anaerobic as a sanitation and energy recovery and technology

15. Gjefle, K. – The sustainable sanitation design concept for sludge treatment for cities in Africa

16. Goudel, C. L. – Investing in people: using human shit and urine as organic fertilizer, energy saving and economic development in vulnerable communities of Nepal

17. Han, A., Erbay, C., Ryu, Y., Yu, C., Choi, M. J., de Figueiredo, P. - Highly efficient microbe-mediated energy harvesting from wastewater through nanomaterial decorated three-dimensional multi-length scale porous matrix electrode

18. Harrison, J., Wilson, D. Towards sustainable pit latrine management through LaDePa

19. Ieropoulos, I., Greenman, J., Lewis, D., Knoop, O. – Energy production and sanitation improvement using microbial fuel cells

20. Ive, O., Wall, K., Bhagwan, J., Kirwan, F., Birkholtz, W., Lupuwana, N., Shaylor, N. – Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household VIPs: a case study from Goven Mbeki village

21. Kellner, C., Graefnitz, T., Hoffmann, T. - Faecal sludge management

22. Koottatep, T., Surinkul, N., Panuvatvanich, A. – Accumulation rates of thickened-bottom sludge and its characteristics from water-based onsite sanitation systems in Thailand

23. Larsen, T. A., Gebauer, H., Gründl, H., Künzle, R., Lüthi, C., Messmer, U., Morgenroth, E., Ranner, B. – Diversion for safe sanitation: a new approach to sanitation in informal settlements

24. Magoya, J. T., Tenthani, C. – Direct mode-solar sludge drier

25. Maradufu, A., Obey, J.K., Sang, B.C., Khang’ati, J.E. – Using Senecio lyratipartitus as a hand disinfectant after anal ablution

26. Martin, S., Danso-Boateng, E., Holdich, R., Wheatley, A., Sohail, M., Gyi, D.- A toilet system based on hydrothermal carbonization

27. Mostert, V. Dealing with the rural sanitation backlog in the Chris Hani District Municipality, South Africa – a case study

28. Muanda, C., Tshibangu, R., Lagardien, A. – Management of faecal sludge from a mobile communal sanitation facility – a case study of the mobisan

29. Muxímpua, O., Hawkins, P. – Building blocks for effective faecal skudge management in peri-urban areas: the role of small-scale service providers in Maputo

30. Naidoo, V., Langergraber, G., Weissenbacher, N., Krasteva, K., Müllegger, E., Lechner, M., Casielles, R., Feki, F., Mutua, B.M., Dissa, A., Jaait, M., Dalecha, T. – The CLARA project – capacity linked water supply and sanitation improvement for Africa’s peri-urban and rural areas.

31. Nikiema, J., Cofie, O., Impraim, R., Drechsel, P. – Fortified excreta pellets for agriculture

32. Opel, A. – Challenge critical: absence of faecal sludge management shatters the gains of improved sanitation coverage in Bangladesh

33. Pradhan, S.K., Amoah, P., Piya, R.C., Heinonen-Tanski, H. – Urine fertilizer for vegetable production – a case study in Nepal and Ghana

34. Preneta, N., Kramer, S., Magloire, B, Noel, J.M. – Thermophilic co-composting of human wastes in Haiti

35. Purves, I.J., Gardiner, V. – Culturally and financially sustainable applications of Loowatt technology in Antananarivo, Madagascar – early feedback

36. Radford, J. T. – Physical characterisation of pit-latrine sludge

37. Robbins, D., Strande, L., Doczi, J. – Lessons learned in faecal-sludge management: experiences from Philippines

38. Sugden, S. – Reflections on business models and technology designs for pit emptying services

39. Summers, S., Linden, K.G., Weimer, A., Lewandowski, A., Klees, R., Mahoney, R., Fisher, R., Yacob, T., Kearns, J., Beck, S., Oversby, C. – Solar-driven thermal toilet with biochar production

40. Liu, Z., Ruan, Z., Xiao, Y., Yu, Y., Tang, Y. T., Liu, Y., Liao, W. – Microbial conversion of sewage sludge for advanced fuel production

41. Chinedu, U. O., Ocholi, M., Kambou, K., Dissa, A., Spooner, K., Kere, R., Makaya, J., Williams, A.-O., Doucoure, I. – Ethics and faecal-sludge management in Africa

42. von Herzen, Brian – Development of a solid waste to biochar reactor

43. Wall, K., Ive, O., Bhagwan, J., Kirwan, F. – Social franchising principles do work: the businesss approach to removal and disposal of faecal – from pilot to scale

44. Yofe, J.-M., Chinedu, U. O., Henry, L., Wethe, J., Djagoun, G., Doucoure, I., Ali, M. Impact of prices and tariffs on fecal sludge management in Africa

BMGF, Gates Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, WRC, WIN-SA, soilhaiti

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Published in: 2012

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FSM2, Durban, South Africa

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