© Nairobi123  under licence of  CC BY-SA 3.0

Downloads & Links

 SFD for Kisumu City, Kenya

Kenya - Reviewed SFD

Kisumu is the principal city of western Kenya and the third largest city in Kenya. It covers an approximate area of 297 km2 and sits on the shores of Lake Victoria. The city is divided into two topographical areas, the hilly north and the southern plain. The current population is estimated to be 419,072 and 60% of the population live in informal settlements. A majority of people in Kisumu use unlined pit latrines (66%). A majority of these pits are manually emptied and the faecal sludge is then discharged into the local environment without treatment. 20% of the excreta from the population of Kisumu is discharge directly to sewers, 80% of this stream reaches one of the two sewage treatment plants where it is treated. 9% of the populations’ excreta in contained in improved pit latrines, sealed or septic tanks. These are emptied by vacuum tankers and the faecal sludge is then taken to Nyalenda Sewage Treatment Plant. Currently 33% of the excreta produced by the population of Kisumu is considered to be safely managed.

Prepared by



  • SFD PI Update 7

    Live Q&A, training events, reports, publications... - Check out the latest developments of the SFD Promotion Initiative on the SuSanA Forum

  • New SFD Report available from Patna, India

    Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!

    Read its new SFD Report!

  • New SFD Report available from Tikapur, Nepal

    Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:

    98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)

    2%  open defecation

  • Material of the Question & Answer session available

    Any questions about SFDs? Watch our recent Q&A session about SFDs 

    1. Presentation: The SFD Manual - a guide to content and process

    2. Presentation: The SFD Review Procedure

    3. Presentation: The SFD Helpdesk

  • Presentations about SFDs in Africa and Indonesia

    Watch the presentation with voice on SFDs in Africa and Indonesia

    1. SFDs in Africa: From Visualization to Action

    2. How the Government of Indonesia is using the SFD

  latest news