Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices open defecation. The city has three Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) where 41% of the waste water is treated but there are not treatment facilities for septage. One private emptier is responsible for septage management, providing services within the city and some rural areas nearby.
Date of production: 01/08/2015
Last update: 26/01/2016
Watch the presentation with voice on SFDs in Africa and Indonesia
1. SFDs in Africa: From Visualization to Action
2. How the Government of Indonesia is using the SFD
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Watch the video (full version) on how the SFD was introduced in Indonesia and why the Indonesian government sees it as a useful tool to improve urban sanitation!
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