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Kabul
Afghanistan 

prepared by GIZ • Draft version available

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,289,000. It was selected for the SFD program because it is a mega city with only 20% supplied with piped water and 60% informal dwellings. In Kabul it was estimated that 21% of excreta is managed safely while 79% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

 

Date of production: 16/05/2016
Last update: 11/08/2016


  

Khulna
Bangladesh 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Khulna is located in the south-western part of Bangladesh, with a population of 1.5 million and a total area of 46 km2. Its National policy and strategy documents encourage both NGOs and the private sector to actively engage in providing sanitation services. However, the SFD assessment has shown that 100% of the excreta in Khulna is not contained and therefore unsafely managed.

 

Date of production: 11/11/2015
Last update: 17/12/2015


  

Dhaka
Bangladesh 

prepared by WEDC/WSP • Reviewed SFD

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of world's most populated cities. ‘Dhaka City’ is defined in this report as the areas under the jurisdiction of the two Dhaka City Corporations. They cover an approximate area of 120 sq. km and house a population of 6.8 million people. The number of open defecators is low (less than 1%), but a majority of the city’s excreta is discharged into the environment without treatment via open drains (70%). Although 28% of excreta is discharged to sewers, very little is delivered to the sewage treatment plant and less than 1% is effectively treated. This means that more than 99% of excreta is unsafely managed in Dhaka.


  

Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Bolivia 

prepared by WEDC/WSP • Reviewed SFD

Santa Cruz de la Serria Metropolitan Area (SCMA) is the second largest urban area in Bolivia. It is a major economic centre in Bolivia with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants. 49% of the populations’ excreta discharge directly to sewers. Of this, only 80% (or 39% of the populations’ excreta) is considered to reach a wastewater treatment plant. A total of 30% of all wastewater is considered as treated. 46% of the population are reliant on onsite sanitation systems, with a majority using septic tanks connected to a soak pit (35%). 5% of the population have no access to sanitation systems and practice open defecation.

Date of production: 21/09/2016
Last update: 03/01/2017


  

Phnom Penh
Cambodia 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

The sanitation service in Phnom Penh (population of 1.6 million people) is poor. A sewer network serves a quarter of the city but all of the wastewater collected is discharged untreated to the local river network.  One hundred percent of the fecal waste generated in the city is reused/disposed of unsafely to the environment.


  

Bure
Ethiopia 

prepared by University of Leeds • Reviewed SFD

Bure is located 400 km north of the capital Addis Ababa and 148 km south west of Bahir Dar and is within the Amhara State, Western Gojjam Administrative Zone of Ethiopia. It has a total urban population of 27,386 people. The number of Open Defecation is only 2%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 33% of the city's excreta is safely managed, while 67% is unsafely managed.

Date of production: 30/09/2016


  

Hawassa
Ethiopia 

prepared by WEDC/WSP • Reviewed SFD

Hawassa is the capital of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency estimates that the population of Hawassa is 351,469 and it has an annual population growth rate of 4%. 100% of the population is reliant on onsite sanitation. The most popular sanitation technology being semi-lined pits (56%). Although the SFD shows that 75% of the excreta as being safely contained, it is actually being discharged into the soil.

Date of production: 9/6/2016
Last update: 9/6/2016


  

Holleta
Ethiopia 

prepared by University of Leeds • Reviewed SFD

Holleta is an Ethiopian city located in the Oromia region at a distance of 35 Km from Addis Ababa, lying between levations of 2,320 and 2,460 meters above sea level. The average rainfall in Holleta is 1,367 mm and the mean temperature varies from 12.3 to 15.9°C. Population in 2015 was 57,828 with an average of 6.7 members per household. About 90% of households collect part of their daily water requirement from the town’s water supply system, from either a private connection or public taps. Solid waste is collected by several micro-enterprises while vacuum trucks are used to collect faecal sludge; all wastes are discharged to an open-field dumpsite without treatment.

Date of production: 11/05/2016
Last update: 11/11/2016


  

Axum
Ethiopia 

prepared by University of Leeds • Reviewed SFD

Axum is in Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau at an altitude of 2,100 m above the sea level. The town is 1,041 km away from the capital, Addis Ababa. The town is structured into four kebeles or wards with a total population of 46,887 out of which 21,778 are males and 25,108 are females, living in a total of 13,790 households. The annual growth rate of the population is set at 2.5%.

Date of production: 05/09/2016

 


  

Bahir Dar
Ethiopia 

prepared by University of Leeds • Reviewed SFD

Bahir Dar is a city located northwest Ethiopia with a population of 318,429 people, of which 85% live in the urban and 15% in the peri-urban and rural areas of the city. The city  has no solid or liquid waste treatment plant to treat any waste, all waste streams end up in an open field with no treatment at all. The municipality and the private sector provide emptying services to customers but there is a lack of monitoring of service standards. All solid wastes, including faecal sludge, are unsafely disposed of in an open field in the outskirts of the city with no treatment at all.

Date of production: 04/07/2016
Last update: 14/11/2016


  

Bishoftu
Ethiopia 

prepared by University of Leeds • Reviewed SFD

Axum is located in the state of Oromia, Ethiopia, approximately 47 km south east of Addis Ababa. Its topography is undulating and characterized by flat land on the north and east parts of the city, locked by several lakes, while the south is dominated by hills (BCP, 2015). The geographical area of the city is about 15,273 ha, and it lies at an altitude in the range of 1900 m. to 1995 m. The number of Open Defecation is very low (1%). Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 14% of the city's excreta is safely managed, whilst 86% is unsafely managed.

Date of production: 30/09/2016


  

Kumasi
Ghana 

prepared by WEDC • Reviewed SFD

Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana and lies in the Ashanti Region in the south of the country (Adarkwa, 2011). The city covers approximately 254 sq. km. It has an approximately population of 2.7 million with an annual growth rate of 5.5% (City Population, 2015, World Bank, 2008). A high percentage of the population of Kumasi is reliant on public toilets that are properly regulated by KMA (39%, GSS 2013) and the number of open defecators is relatively small (3%, GSS 2013). Despite this, 45% of the faecal sludge generated in Kumasi remains unsafety managed.

 

Date of production: 27/10/2015
Last update: 16/11/2015


  

Tegucigalpa
Honduras 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

The sanitation service in Tegucigalpa is essentially a failed sanitation service chain with only a fraction of the waste generated being treated and disposed of safely. The majority of the waste is contained and transported in a sewer network that discharges largely untreated wastewater into the Environment.


  

Nashik
India 

prepared by GIZ • Reviewed SFD

The city of Nashik is located in the northwest of the state of Maharashtra in the Western Ghats at the source of the Godavari River. As per Census 2011 Nashik has a total population of just under 1.5 Million. In Nashik it was estimated that 85% of excreta is managed safely while 15% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

 

Date of production: 10/11/2015
Last update: 08/03/2016


  

Agra
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Agra, the former capital of India is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. There is sewerage network which covers half of the population. Rest of the city is majorly dependent on septic tanks which are generally not adhering to design prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

Date of production: 21/10/2015
Last update: 29/01/2016


  

Tirupati
India 

prepared by GIZ • Draft version available

Tirupati is situated in Chittoor district in the southern of the state of Andhra Pradesh with a total population of just under 375,000. The town is a pilgrimage center and attracts a total diurnal floating population of about 55,000. In Tirupati it was estimated that 70% of excreta is managed safely while 30% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

Date of production: 16/01/2016
Last update: 13/04/2016


  

Bansberia
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Bansberia is a town in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, India. All households in the city are dependent on onsite sanitation systems. According to Census of India, 2011, 91.4% population is dependent on onsite sanitation systems. From the field survey conducted by CSE, it was observed that there is no offsite sanitation system in the city.

Date of production: 28/04/2017
Last update: 23/08/2017


  

Kochi
India 

prepared by GIZ • Reviewed SFD

Kochi is a major port city on the west coast of India by the Arabian Sea in the state of Kerala. The city of Kochi (pop. 601,574) is the most densely populated city in the state and is part of an extended metropolitan region (pop. 2.1 million), which is the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. It has been chosen as a SFD city since there is already a sanitation city plan available that will be compared with SFD findings. In Kochi it was estimated that 20% of excreta is managed safely while 80% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

Date of production: 16/01/2016
Last update: 06/06/2016


  

Aizawl
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Aizawl is the capital of Mizoram State located in the east of the Himalayan region of India. The density of the city, 2,823 persons per sq. km, is higher compared to state average, 52 persons per sq. km. 92% of the city depend on onsite sanitation systems and 8% of the city on offsite systems.  There is no wastewater treatment leading to unsafe management of faecal sludge and wastewater.

 

Date of production: 29/07/2015
Last update: 31/12/2015


  

Gwalior
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Gwalior is a historical city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. There is sewerage network covering around 80% of the population. In spite having good sewerage network within the city only 19% of wastewater is safely managed in the city and rest 81%, which also includes 6% of city defecating in open, is shown unsafe in SFD.

Date of production: 13/10/2015
Last update: 23/01/2016


  

Srikakulam
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Srikakulam is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and is an important administrative and commercial center. The population of city is 133,911 persons. Lack of sewerage network, sewage treatment plant, malfunctioning septic tanks and pits as well as open defection are the causes of excreta being unsafely managed.

Date of production: 31/07/2015
Last update: 31/12/2015


  

Tiruchirapalli
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Tiruchirappalli, also known as Trichy, is one of the largest cities in Tamil Nadu and is known as an important trade, education and pilgrimage centre. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is 916,857. There is sewerage network which covers 59% of the population. Rest of the city is majorly dependent on septic tanks which are generally not adhering to design prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

Date of production: 26/09/2015
Last update: 19/02/2016


  

Cuttack
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Cuttack lies in the east coast plains of India; it is the capital and one of the oldest cities of Odisha. The population of the city reaches 606,007 persons, who are mainly dependent on malfunctioning septic tanks and pits. Only 32% of faecal sludge and wastewater is safely managed.

 

Date of production: 28/07/2015
Last update: 30/12/2015


  

Delhi
India 

prepared by CSE / WSP • Reviewed SFD

Delhi is the capital of India. It is officially known as the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The population of NCT of Delhi as per the Census 2011 is 16,787,941. The density of city is 11,320 persons per sq.km. Total slum population is 1,785,390 which is 10.6% of the total population (Census of India, 2011). The floating population is around 0.4 to 0.5 million. NCT of Delhi comprises of an area of 1484 sq.km. Delhi Urban Agglomeration has been chosen for the current study. It comprises of population of 16,349,831. According to the SFD 56% of excreta is safely managed in the city and rest 44% is unsafely discharged into the environment.

Date of production: 08/02/2016
Last update: 20/02/2016


  

Dewas
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Dewas  city  is  located  on  the  Malwa  plateau  of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is headquarters  of  the  Dewas district. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is 289,438.  The  density  of  city  is  2,889  persons per sq.km.  Total slum population  is  92,770  which  is  32%  of  the total  population. The floating  population  is  around  25,000. Ninety-three percent (93%) of the excreta flow was classified as unsafe management along the sanitation service chain (containment, emptying, transport and/or treatment).

Date of production: 30/01/2016
Last update: 03/02/2016


  

Tumkur
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Tumkur (also known as Tumakuru) is located along the Pune-Bangalore National Highway N°4. The sewerage network covers half of the population, but there is also a high dependence on septic tanks, without the correct design, and pits. Tumkur possesses a Sewage Treatment Plant but has no treatment facilities for septage.

 

Executive summary: 03/08/2015 (Last update: 25/08/2015)
Final report: 03/08/2015 (Last update: 30/12/2015)


  

Solapur
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Solapur is located on the south-eastern border of Maharashtra State. The population of the city is 951,118 persons. One-fifth of city’s population depends on public toilets while septic tanks and pits are most common in Solapur’s households. There is a sewerage network but it covers less than half of the population.

 

Date of production: 01/08/2015
Last update: 07/01/2016


  

Bikaner
India 

prepared by CSE • Reviewed SFD

Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices open defecation. The city has three Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) where 41% of the waste water is treated but there are not treatment facilities for septage. One private emptier is responsible for septage management, providing services within the city and some rural areas nearby.

Date of production: 01/08/2015
Last update: 26/01/2016


  

Palu
Indonesia 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

There is no sewer network in Palu (population of 0.35 million people)and it is estimated that over 90% of the households have access to on-site sanitation. These households are served by a local government run FSM service which collects, treats and disposes of the sludge effectively.


  

Nakuru
Kenya 

prepared by WEDC • Reviewed SFD

Nakuru is the fourth largest town in Kenya, lying within the Rift Valley and covering an area of 290 km2. Less than 30% of the population is served by the sewerage network, while the majority of the population use onsite sanitation services, predominantly in the form of basic or traditional pit latrines. Formal emptying services for fecal sludge has limited coverage, with the fecal sludge removed by tanker services taken to the sewage treatment plant. Nakuru Municipal Council is currently responsible for service provision and regulating sanitation services.

 

Date of production: 17/11/2015
Last update: 01/12/2015


  

Kisumu
Kenya 

prepared by WEDC • Reviewed SFD

Kisumu is the principal city of western Kenya and the third largest city in Kenya. It covers an approximate area of 297 km2 and sits on the shores of Lake Victoria. The city is divided into two topographical areas, the hilly north and the southern plain. The current population is estimated to be 419,072 and 60% of the population live in informal settlements. A majority of people in Kisumu use unlined pit latrines (66%). A majority of these pits are manually emptied and the faecal sludge is then discharged into the local environment without treatment. 20% of the excreta from the population of Kisumu is discharge directly to sewers, 80% of this stream reaches one of the two sewage treatment plants where it is treated. 9% of the populations’ excreta in contained in improved pit latrines, sealed or septic tanks. These are emptied by vacuum tankers and the faecal sludge is then taken to Nyalenda Sewage Treatment Plant. Currently 33% of the excreta produced by the population of Kisumu is considered to be safely managed.


  

Maputo
Mozambique 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

A large proportion of Maputo’s Population (1.9 million people) lives in low-income settlements, often in Areas with high water table. Greater Maputo comprises Maputo City and Matola. There is no sewerage network in Matola; in Maputo City, about 10% of households have sewer connections, while the remainder depend on septic tanks and latrines of different types and qualities.


  

Managua
Nicaragua 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

A sewer network serves nearly forty per cent of households in Managua (population of 2 million people) and the waste transported in this system is treated in a wastewater Treatment plant. This leaves over half the city’s households reliant on various on-site sanitation systems and a tiny minority of these households benefit from an FSM service.


  

Lima
Peru 

prepared by WEDC • Reviewed SFD

Lima the capital of Peru and the third largest city in Latin America covering an area of 2,700 km2. Metropolitan Lima consists of the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao and is located in a coastal desert. Approximately one third of Peru’s population live in Metropolitan Lima. It has an estimated population of 9,904,727. 92% of the excreta from the population of Lima is discharge directly to sewers, but only 65% of this stream reaches a wastewater treatment plant, this is then partially treated. 3% of the populations’ excreta is contained in sealed tanks, 3% in unlined pits (which are never emptied) and 1% in lined pits. The sealed tanks and lined pits are emptied by vacuum tankers. The faecal sludge is the taken to Hauycoloro landifill site. Currently 46% of the excreta produced by the population of Lima is safely managed.


  

Dumaguete
Philippines 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

In Dumaguete (population of 0.12 million people), a FSM system has recently been introduced to serve the whole city. Cost-sharing partnership has been established between the City Government, who operate and maintain the FSTP, and the local Water District who collect and transport the FS to treatment.


  

Manila
Philippines 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

Since 2005 through the adoption of a more affordable strategy involving the use of a septage Management programme the concessionaires are now accelerating coverage and are currently targeting full coverage by 2037. In addition to the concessionaires some municipalities also deliver services within the service area.


  

Bignona
Senegal 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Bignona and Tenghory Trans-Gambian are in the region of Casamance, Senegal. The study area is comprised of seven districts (six in Bignona, one is the neighboring district ofTenghory Trans-Gambian in the municipality of Tenghory). These seven districts have a total area of 10.5 km². The population sums up to 44,783 with an annual population growth rate of 2.7%. The average population density is 4,300 people per km², ranging between 16,000 (Bassène) and 2,000 (South Manguiline). In Bignona there are no existing sewer systems. The city relies fully on onsite sanitation technologies with the majority of the population (49%) utilizing so-called traditional pit latrines (unlined pits). For Bignona it is estimated that 66% of the excreta is not managed safely, thus only 34% of the excreta is considered safely managed.

Date of production: 08/12/2015
Last update: 09/03/2016


  

Dakar
Senegal 

prepared by WSP • Draft version available

Sewerage coverage in Dakar (2.7 million people) is high by comparison with most African cities, with an extensive sewerage system that covers significant areas of the city, although with currently limited coverage of lowerincome districts; however, the majority of households use on-site sanitation, notably pour-flush latrines discharging to septic tanks or pits.


  

Durban
South Africa 

prepared by PRG • Reviewed SFD

The city of Durban is managed by the eThekwini Municipality, which covers a wider area including 55% urban and 45% rural sectors. In 2015 the population was estimated from projections of the last census count in 2011 as being approximately 3.55 million people (eThekwini Municipality, 2015a). Most of the influx of people to the city accumulate in the peri-urban and rural areas due to more affordable land in the traditionally owned rural areas and due to the historical distorted urban planning arrangements from the Apartheid era (eThekwini Municipality, 2015b). In Durban, 74% of excreta is managed safely, with 48% coming from waterborne toilets on the central sewer network. The bulk of the excreta that is not safely managed is from the 17% of households that do not have improved toilet facilities or access to an emptying service (making up 16% unimproved, community-built pits that are not emptied or buried and 1% (open defecation) as well as the estimated overflow from blocked sewer lines.

Date of Production: 04/04/2016
Last update: 26/04/2016


  

Yei
South Sudan 

prepared by GIZ • Reviewed SFD

Yei is the second largest urban centre in Central Equatoria State in South Sudan with a population of around 230,000. Reportedly, the town had a well-developed infrastructure including roads and electricity supplies, water and sanitation systems in the town centre during the 1970s. Wars and civil unrest have troubled the town ever since. In the past decade the population has been exposed to several outbreaks of Cholera.

 

Executive summary: 25/08/2015 (Last update: 25/08/2015)
Final Report: 25/11/2015 (Last update: 08/03/2016)


  

Dar Es Salaam
Tanzania 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Dar es Salaam lies on the coast of the Indian Ocean and is the largest city and economic hub of Tanzania (DCC, 2004). The 2015 population is estimated to have reached more than 5 million inhabitants (NBS,2013). In Dar es Salaam, it was estimated that 43% of excreta is managed safely while 57% of the excreta ends up directly in the environment without adequate treatment.

 

Date of production: 03/09/2015
Last update: 26/10/2015


  

Moshi
Tanzania 

prepared by GIZ • Reviewed SFD

Moshi is a Tanzanian municipality with a population of 184,292 according to the 2012 census. The municipality is situated on the lower slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, a dormant volcano that is the highest mountain in Africa. The municipality covers about 59 square kilometers and has been chosen as a SFD city for the reason that very motivated municipal council staff worked out the first SFD in own initiative.

Date of production: 25/11/2015
Last update: 08/03/2016


  

Nonthaburi
Thailand 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Nonthaburi City Municipality is the principal city of Nonthaburi province, located to the north of Bangkok. It has a registered population of 256,457 in the area of 38.9 km2 (NCM 2015a). Most of the houses have onsite sanitation systems such as septic tanks or cesspools. The city municipality is responsible for the collection, transportation and treatment of the generated faecal sludge according with the Public Health Act 1992; resulting in 79% of excreta flow safely managed.

 

Date of production: 11/11/2015
Last update: 16/12/2015


  

Kampala
Uganda 

prepared by Sandec / WSP • Reviewed SFD

Kampala is the capital and most populated city in Uganda, with a population of 1.5 million. The total area of the city is 178 km². In line with rapid urbanization, approximately 60% of city residents live in informal low-income settlements (“slums”). The majority of households in Kampala  use on-site sanitation as the city’s sewerage network covers less than a tenth of the population.

Kampala was part of the study commissioned by Worldbank - WSP, when a first SFD for the city was prepared (based on secondary information). In 2016, a more detailed study was conducted by Sandec following the methodolgy developed by the SFD Promotion Initiative.

 


  

Da Nang
Vietnam 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Danang is located at the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is the fourth most populated city in the country with approximately 1,007,400 inhabitants in 2014 (GSO 2015). The total land area of the city is 1,285 km2, including 65 km2 of residential area (GSO 2015). Sixty-two percent (62%) of the excreta flow was classified as unsafe management along the sanitation service chain (containment, emptying, transport and/or treatment). Good transportation of the faecal sludge to a treatment plant followed by it being treated is crucial for improving the excreta flow in Danang.

 

Date of production: 13/11/2015
Last update: 16/12/2015


  

Hanoi
Vietnam 

prepared by Sandec • Reviewed SFD

Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is located in the Northern part of the country in the Red river delta. The urban districts cover an area of 304 km² with an estimated population of 3,147,000 inhabitants. Half of the districts have population densities above 20,000 inhabitants per km² while the other half below 10,000 inhabitants per km². This illustrates the variation between dense urban districts in the centre of the city and districts where peri-urban characteristics prevail. The majority of households have septic tanks that are connected to the drainage network. For Hanoi it is estimated that 82% of the excreta is not managed safely, thus only 18% of the excreta is considered safely managed.

Date of production: 21/02/2016
Last update: 09/03/2016


  
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