Globally, the great majority of urban dwellers, especially poor people, rely for their sanitation on non-sewered systems that generate a mix of solid and liquid wastes generally termed fecal sludge. In poor and rapidly expanding cities, fecal sludge management represents a growing challenge, generating significant negative public health and environmental risks. Without proper management, fecal sludge is often allowed to accumulate in poorly designed pits, is discharged into storm drains and open water, or is dumped into waterways, wasteland, and unsanitary dumping sites. This research brief seeks to assess the extent of this issue, and the major constraints that need to be overcome to improve fecal sludge management. By compiling data from cities in the regions of Latin America, Africa, South Asia and East Asia and presenting them side by side the brief documents some relative key findings.
Keywords Disease, environment, health, hygiene, sanitation, state of water resources, urban areas, wastewater
Author(s) Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C.
Published in: 2014
Publisher Water and Sanitation Programm (WSP), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank
The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.
Live Q&A, training events, reports, publications... - Check out the latest developments of the SFD Promotion Initiative on the SuSanA Forum
Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!
Read its new SFD Report!
Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:
98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)
2% open defecation
Any questions about SFDs? Watch our recent Q&A session about SFDs
1. Presentation: The SFD Manual - a guide to content and process
2. Presentation: The SFD Review Procedure
3. Presentation: The SFD Helpdesk