The high population density of the cities does not allow families to safely abandon onsite sanitation facilities. This creates a need for a sanitation service chain to safely manage feacal waste. Hence, Shit/Excreta Flow Diagrams (SFD) are being developed as an analysis tool, which illustrates excreta pathways along the sanitation service chain in a city. The main objective of this study is to use the SFD methodology to model four possible future scenarios in Kusami and predict the changes in excreta flow patterns. Four differrent scenarios have been defined using the population growth rate, the number of public toilets, number of private toilets and the treatment plant capacity as main variable parameters. First, a "baseline scenario" was formed, in order to analyse the potential change in the SFD if there is no investment in the next years and the population continues to increase. Afterwards, two more scenarios were studied regarding the on-going projects or those that are about to start in the city. Finally, a combination of second and third scenarios was defined to illustrate the total change in the SFD if all projects are implemented.


Keywords
SFD, faecal sludge, Kumasi, sanitation service chain, urban sanitation

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Author(s)
Fernández-Martínes, L.


Published in: 2016

Pages: 132


Publisher
Loughborough University

  • Online course by CSE in July 2018

    The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.


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    98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)

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  • Material of the Question & Answer session available

    Any questions about SFDs? Watch our recent Q&A session about SFDs 

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