Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River. The city is surrounded by two other rivers on two other sides: Sone River and Pun-Pun River.
Patna is the second largest city in eastern India after Kolkata. For the preparation of the SFD, the territory of Patna Municipal Corporation (PMC) is selected.
The total population of the city is 1.68 million with decadal growth rate of 22% and annual growth rate of 2.1%, as per the 2011 census. The population density of the PMC area is 15,640 persons per square kilometre. The total area under PMC is 109.21 km2, which is 23 km in length and 18 km wide (PMC, 2016).
As per census, 92.3% of households in Patna have toilet facilities with 21.5% of the toilets connected to the sewer system, 65.5% of the toilets connected to septic tanks and 2.8% with pit latrines and other systems. Moreover, 2.4% of the households are dependent on public toilets and 5% practice open defecation.

- City context
- Service delivery context
- Service Outcome
- SFD Matrix
- Risk of groundwater contamination
- Uncertainty of the data
- Key Informant Interviews


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Population Services International (PSI)

Published in: 2018

Pages: 21


  • Online course by CSE in July 2018

    The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.

  • SFD PI Update 7

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    Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!

    Read its new SFD Report!

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    Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:

    98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)

    2%  open defecation

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    1. Presentation: The SFD Manual - a guide to content and process

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