Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is located in the Northern part of the country in the Red river delta. The urban districts cover an area of 304 km² with an estimated population of 3,147,000 inhabitants. Half of the districts have population densities above 20,000 inhabitants per km² while the other half below 10,000 inhabitants per km². This illustrates the variation between dense urban districts in the centre of the city and districts where peri-urban characteristics prevail. The majority of households have septic tanks that are connected to the drainage network. For Hanoi it is estimated that 82% of the excreta is not managed safely, thus only 18% of the excreta is considered safely managed.
Date of production: 21/02/2016
Last update: 09/03/2016
The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.
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Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!
Read its new SFD Report!
Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:
98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)
2% open defecation
Any questions about SFDs? Watch our recent Q&A session about SFDs
1. Presentation: The SFD Manual - a guide to content and process
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