Author(s): CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO
Published in: 2019
Publisher: City-Wide Inclusive Sanitation Technical Assistance Hub (CWIS TA Hub, South Asia); Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO)
SFD Lite Report - Tokha Municipality, Nepal
Tokha Municipality is an ancient city of Kathmandu district in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The total population of Tokha Municipality is 99,032 residing in 25,561 households. Majority of people of Tokha Municipality are dependent on municipal water supply. People who do not have access to municipal water supply system get water from their own sources, mostly groundwater such as well and tap water. Combined sewers are predominantly found in Tokha Municipality, followed by user interface directly connected to open drains. A small portion of population are dependent on onsite sanitation systems. Both manual (20%) and mechanical (80%) emptying were found to be practised in Tokha Municipality, where the mechanical service is provided by a private desludging service provider. There are no municipal services in the municipality, depending on the neighbouring municipality. Mechanically emptied Faecal Sludge (FS) is transported to the disposal area with the help of a desludging vehicle, a tank equipped with a movable centrifugal pump on a truck. The wastewater and supernatant are transported through the sewer system. Despite having a huge coverage of sewer system, the municipality lacks treatment facilities for treating wastewater and faecal sludge. All the wastewater, supernatant and emptied faecal sludge are finally discharged in Bishnumati River, Sangle River and other rivers of Kathmandu Valley.
SFD; Shit Flow Diagram; excreta disposal; combined sewers; sanitation; septic tanks