Preview Image SFD

Author(s): CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO
Published in: 2019
Pages: 8
Publisher: City-Wide Inclusive Sanitation Technical Assistance Hub (CWIS TA Hub, South Asia); Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO)


SFD Lite Report - Budhanilkantha Municipality, Nepal

Budhanilkantha Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal with a total population of 153,303 people residing in 32,039 households. Most of the population are dependent on the sewer system followed by fully lined tanks, lined tanks with impermeable walls and open bottom, septic tanks, user interface directly connected to open drain and lined pits with semi-permeable walls and open bottom with no outlet and overflow. The emptying frequency widely varies since there is no standard design guidelines for the construction of containments in Budhanilkantha Municipality. Despite having a huge coverage of sewer system, the municipality lacks of treatment facilities for treating wastewater. Manually emptied faecal sludge is disposed by the household member or labour themselves in their household premises or in the field. All the wastewater, supernatant and emptied faecal sludge are finally discharged in Bishnumati and Dhobi Rivers, as well as in other rivers of Kathmandu Valley. Overall 96% of the excreta generated have been unsafely managed and only 4% of the excreta generated have been safely managed.

SFD; Shit Flow Diagram; excreta disposal; sewers; sanitation; faecal sludge management; septic tank;