Fernández-Martínes, L., 2016
Using the Shit/Excreta Flow Diagrams (SFDs) for modelling future scenarios in Kumasi, Ghana
A research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University

The high population density of the cities does not allow families to safely abandon onsite sanitation facilities. This creates a need for a sanitation service chain to safely manage feacal waste. Hence, Shit/Excreta Flow Diagrams (SFD) are being developed as an analysis tool, which illustrates excreta pathways along the sanitation service chain in a city. The main objective of this study is to use the SFD methodology to model four possible …

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Furlong, C. et al., 2016
Learnings from implementing the excreta flow diagram (SFD) process in Kumasi

Abstract: Excreta, Faecal or Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs) are away to clearly represent how excreta flows along the sanitation service chain. This approach has already gaines popularity and many SFDs have already been produced. To date little attention has been paid to the methods and data used, or the credibility of the SFDs. The SFD Promotion Initiative has created a tool to enable the wieder roll-out of SFDs, which includes a credibility …

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Various authors, 2015
Project Prasaadhan - Business model development for fecal sludge management in rural Bihar
Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Arunesh Singh is leading and which Genevieve Kelly is supporting. The grant is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below. Short description of the project: PSI and its partners Water for People (WFP), the WASH Institute and 3S Shramik, a local business offering portable toilets, …

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Strande, L., Ronteltap, M., Brdjanovic, D. (Eds.), 2014
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) book
Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation

Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. Financial resources are often lacking, and onsite sanitation systems tend to be regarded as temporary solutions until sewer-based systems can be implemented. However, the reality is that onsite sanitation …

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Tilley, E. et al., 2014
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
(2nd Revised Edition)

This Compendium aims at pulling the main information on sanitation technologies together in one volume. Moreover, the Compendium is to promote a systems approach; sanitation devices and technologies should always be considered as parts of an entire system. This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested …

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Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2014
The missing link in sanitation service delivery. A review of fecal sludge management in 12 Cities

Globally, the great majority of urban dwellers, especially poor people, rely for their sanitation on non-sewered systems that generate a mix of solid and liquid wastes generally termed fecal sludge. In poor and rapidly expanding cities, fecal sludge management represents a growing challenge, generating significant negative public health and environmental risks. Without proper management, fecal sludge is often allowed to accumulate in poorly …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015
A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities
(Final Draft)

The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program commissioned this study to examine global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies as a basis. The objective was to start developing an analysis that can be used to assess FSM at the city level and identify appropriate operational interventions. This desk-based study was a rapid assessment based on secondary data sources supplemented with interviews with key informants. The report is comprised of …

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Various authors, 2015
Proof of concept of estimates for the unsafe return of human excreta to the environment
Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Pete Kolsky and James Bartram are leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information is also available on the SuSanA discussion forum, see link below. Short description of the project: There is need to track human excreta beyond their initial deposit in toilets through to their final return to the environment, to ensure that the …

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Rohilla, S., Watwani, J., et al., 2016
Urban Shit
Where does this sludge go?

Every four in 10 houses in Indian cities and towns use latrines connected to septic tanks. Most municipalities do not have a proper plan to dispose of the faecal sludge collected in these tanks.

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  • Online course by CSE in July 2018

    The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.

  • SFD PI Update 7

    Live Q&A, training events, reports, publications... - Check out the latest developments of the SFD Promotion Initiative on the SuSanA Forum

  • New SFD Report available from Patna, India

    Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!

    Read its new SFD Report!

  • New SFD Report available from Tikapur, Nepal

    Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:

    98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)

    2%  open defecation

  • Material of the Question & Answer session available

    Any questions about SFDs? Watch our recent Q&A session about SFDs 

    1. Presentation: The SFD Manual - a guide to content and process

    2. Presentation: The SFD Review Procedure

    3. Presentation: The SFD Helpdesk

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