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Mandalay is located on the bank of the Irrawaddy on a rather flat and low flood plain, in the centre of Myanmar’s dry-zone. Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar. Mandalay experiences increased informal settlements due to rapid expansion.
All sanitation infrastructures in Mandalay are onsite. The SFD graphic shows that 100% of excreta is not properly managed. It consists of 34% of supernatant not contained from tanks connected to open drains that end up untreated in the environment; 3% of FS emptied, delivered to treatment to an oxidation pond outside the city, but not treated; 55% of FS not contained and not emptied from tanks and pits, and 8% of people practising open defecation.
- Prepared by: University of Lausanne
- Date of production: 27/03/2019
- Last update: 19/03/2020