Mandalay - Myanmar

Reviewed SFD

CC BY 3.0

Mandalay is located on the bank of the Irrawaddy on a rather flat and low flood plain, in the centre of Myanmar’s dry-zone. Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar. Mandalay experiences increased informal settlements due to rapid expansion.

All sanitation infrastructures in Mandalay are onsite. The SFD graphic shows that 100% of excreta is not properly managed. It consists of 34% of supernatant not contained from tanks connected to open drains that end up untreated in the environment; 3% of FS emptied, delivered to treatment to an oxidation pond outside the city, but not treated; 55% of FS not contained and not emptied from tanks and pits, and 8% of people practising open defecation.

  • Prepared by: University of Lausanne
  • Date of production: 27/03/2019
  • Last update: 19/03/2020