SFD Library

These publications, presentations and SFDs have been kindly made available to the SFD Promotion Initiative by the consortium members and others active in the field of excreta management, and are hosted here by the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) library. The SuSanA library has a focus on sanitation related literature and you are welcome to read through the selection of SFD related documents included below. The download link will lead you to the SuSanA library where you will be able to find more information on each document and download it for free.

 

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Ahilan, S., Ban, R., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Schoebitz, L., Scott, R., Sleigh, A., Strande, L., Veses, O., 2020

Estimating Safely Managed Sanitation in Urban Areas - Lessons Learned From a Global Implementation of Excreta-Flow Diagrams

This paper describes a methodology for rapid assessment of sanitation in cities including a graphical representation (a shit-flow diagram or SFD) and reports on findings from implementation in 39 …

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Veses, O., Dinku, H., Evans, B., Peal, A., 2016

SFD Report - Axum, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Axum is located in the Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau. The town is 1,041km away from the capital, Addis Ababa, with a population of 46,887. The number of Open Defecation …

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Veses, O., Evans, B., Bieker, S., 2018

Promotion of SFDs: Review of Phase 1 Report

This document represents a review report of the experience gained from producing SFDs from GIZ, WEDC, UoL, CSE and Eawag under the of the Phase I of the “Promotion of Shit Flow Diagrams” project …

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Various authors, 2015

Proof of concept of estimates for the unsafe return of human excreta to the environment Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Pete Kolsky and James Bartram are leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information is …

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Roeder, L., 2015

SFD Report - Nashik, India SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Nashik is located in the northwest of the state of Maharashtra in the Western Ghats at the source of the Godavari River. As per Census 2011 Nashik has a total population of just under 1.5 …

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Various authors, 2015

Development and dissemination of fecal sludge management toolkit for investors, planners and consultants Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Thammarat Koottatep is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the project is to …

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Schoebitz, L., Niwagaba, C.B., Strande, L., 2016

SFD Report - Kampala, Uganda SFD Promotion Initiative

Kampala is the capital and most populated city in Uganda, with a population of 1,507,080. The total area of the city is 178 km². In line with rapid urbanization, approximately 60% of …

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Furlong, C. et al., 2016

How to prepare an excreta flow diagram (SFD) SFD Promotion Initiative, 39th WEDC conference, Kumasi, Ghana - July 2016

This presentation was held at the 39th WEDC conference in Kumasi, Ghana in July 2016 by the SFD Promotion Initiative. The objective of the session was to introduce the tools available for SFD …

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Hassib, Y., Etemadi, H., 2016

SFD Report - Kabul, Afghanistan

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,289,000. It was selected for …

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Raj, S. et al., 2016

SFD Exchange Meeting - its use and potential in the sanitation sector Presentation from the SFD Exchange Meeting at World Water Week 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden

The SFD Promotion Initiative has been working over the past year to develop a consistent method and the tools for producing excreta flow diagrams, the SFD (also called Shit Flow Diagrams). SFD is a …

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Furlong, C., Mensah, A., Donkor, J., Scott, R., 2016

Learnings from implementing the excreta flow diagram (SFD) process in Kumasi

Abstract: Excreta, Faecal or Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs) are away to clearly represent how excreta flows along the sanitation service chain. This approach has already gaines popularity and many SFDs …

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Fernández-Martínes, L., 2016

Using the Shit/Excreta Flow Diagrams (SFDs) for modelling future scenarios in Kumasi, Ghana A research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University

The high population density of the cities does not allow families to safely abandon onsite sanitation facilities. This creates a need for a sanitation service chain to safely manage feacal waste. …

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Fernandez-Martinez, L., et al., 2017

Predicting the impact of sanitation investment projects on the Sanitation Service Chain (SSC), using excreta flow diagrams (SFDs)

Onsite sanitation systems are the predominant sanitation option worldwide (Medland et al., 2015). High population density in cities in low-middle income countries means that faecal sludge (FS) from …

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Rohilla, S., Watwani, J., et al., 2016

Urban Shit Where does this sludge go?

Every four in 10 houses in Indian cities and towns use latrines connected to septic tanks. Most municipalities do not have a proper plan to dispose of the faecal sludge collected in these tanks.

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Luthra, B., et al., 2016

Pipe Dream - Cleaning Ganga Down to Earth Cover Story

Two flagship programmes of Prime Minister Narendra Modi are working at cross-purposes. By 2019, when Swachh Bharat Mission comes to an end, some 30 million septic tanks and pits would have been dug …

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Kampala Capital City Authority, 2017

Behaviour Change Communication Kampala Faecal Sludge Management Program

Guiding document for Landlords, Tenants, and Local Leaders on Safe Pit Emptying, Improved Emptiable Toilets, and Toilet Hygiene.

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Kampala Capital City Authority, 2017

Minimum Standards for Onsite Sanitation Technology Options in Kampala

KCCA’s current drive towards improving faecal sludge management in Kampala is cognisant of the city sanitation challenges and significant contribution of sanitation to economic and social …

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Rohilla, S., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Yadav, A., Varadharajan, A.,, 2017

SFD Report - Bansberia, India

Bansberia is a town in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, India. Bansberia Municipality was the nerve center of “Saptagram”, a port city, famous for its inland and foreign trades with Europe …

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Blackett, I., 2017

SFD: The Indonesian Case

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as a shit flow diagram or SFD) is a tool to readily understand and visually communicate how excreta flows through a city or town. Based on the …

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Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), 2017

BMZ Water Strategy A key contribution to implementing the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement

Water and sanitation are key to implementing Agenda 2030 and the Paris climate agreement. The new water strategy of the Fed-eral Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) accounts for …

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WHO, 2017

Climate-resilient water safety plans Managing health risks associated with climate variability and change

Medium- and long-term planning for an adequate and safe supply of drinking-water should be set in the context of growing external uncertainties arising from changes in the climate and environment. …

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Blackett, I. and Hawkins, P., 2017

FSM Innovation Case Studies Case Studies on the Business, Policy and Technology of Faecal Sludge Management (second edition)

Worldwide, 2.7 billion people rely on onsite sanitation and more than 4.5 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation services. Yet, in many places there is still no management …

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Arne Panesar, Dirk Walther, Thomas Kauter-Eby, Susanne Bieker, Suresh Rohilla, Regina Dube, Kim Augustin, Roland Schertenleib, 2018

The SuSanA platform and the Shit Flow Diagram - tools to achieve more sustainable sanitation for all A publication within: A BETTER WORLD Vol. 3: Actions and commitments to Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Daniela Krahl of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Development and Cooperation (BMZ) has said that: “The water strategy of our Ministry is seen as a model because it addresses the spirit of …

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GIZ, 2017

SFD Tools and Methods

SFD Tools and Methods. Dec 4 2017, 2 PM Content: 1. Presentation: The SFD Manual: a guide to content and process, Rebecca Scott, WEDC (start 2:30 min.) 2. Presentation: The SFD Review …

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Ulbrich, T., 2015

Technical Feasibility of decentralised Greywater Treatment Units to improve Sanitation in peri-urban Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Diploma Thesis

Following the global development of large cities, Ulaanbaatar, capital of Mongolia, is currently facing the challenges that evolve from urbanisation. Informal settlements (‘ger areas’) are rapidly …

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GIZ, 2017

Sustainable Sanitation Newsletter 2017 (in English and French) Issue no. 50, February 2017

Archived newsletters of the regular electronic news bulletin from the sustainable sanitation projects. These newsletters were sent to subscribed members involved in initiatives and projects in the …

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Salian, P., Bieker, S., 2016

Go with the Flow: A Workshop on Shit Flow Diagrams Presentation at the Kampala WASH Symposium 2016: Led by I-San and GIZ

This workshop aimed at giving the participants a first-hand understanding of how SFDs can be developed and used in a city-wide context. With the information gained, the participants could adopt SFDs …

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Various authors, 2016

CSE Workshop on Mainstreaming Citywide Sanitation: Opportunities and Challenges for Excreta Management

The Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) organised a two day workshop on “Mainstreaming Citywide Sanitation: Opportunities and Challenges for Excreta Management” from April 4-5, 2016 in New …

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GIZ, 2015

Sustainable Sanitation Newsletter 2015 (in English and French) Issue No. 47, June 2015

This newsletter will provide you with a set of updates from the GIZ bilateral water and sanitation programmes in Africa, Asia, MENA and Latin America as well as a selection of news from other …

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GIZ, 2014

Sustainable Sanitation Newsletter 2014 Issue No. 46, November 2014

Archived newsletters of the regular electronic news bulletin from the sustainable sanitation projects. These newsletters were sent to subscribed members involved in initiatives and projects in the …

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SFD Promotion Initiative, 2018

Guidance for using the SFD Graphic Generator

The three guidance documents serve the purpose to facilitate and enhance the usage of the SFD Graphic Generator (GG). The "Classification Tool" helps SFD producers to select the most appropriate …

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SFD Promotion Initiative, 2018

SFD Survey Report

This report summarizes the results obtained from an on-line survey conducted by the Shit Flow Diagram Promotion Initiative (SFD-PI) as a key deliverable of the SFD project. The survey was …

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SFD Promotion Initiative, 2019

SFD Report Templates and Guidance Documents

For help with writing your SFD report or your SFD Thinking, you can use the templates: - SFD Report Template - SFD Lite Report Template - SFD Thinking Template For more support, the Guidance …

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SFD Promotion Initiative, 2019

SFD Review Procedure

The five step Review Procedure developed by the SFD Promotion Initiative ensures standardization of all the SFDs published on the SFD Webportal. We will be happy to provide you with feedback on your …

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Nisaa, A. F., Hajrah, H., 2018

SFD Case Story - The Shit Flow Diagram in Indonesia

Since 2017, each city/regency in Indonesia has been requested to incorporate an SFD graphic into the respective sanitation strategy document (SKK). Within 2017 already 134 cities and regencies …

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Nisaa, A. F., Hajrah, H., 2018

SFD Thinking - SFDs going viral in Indonesia SFD Promotion Initiative

Since 2017, each city/regency in Indonesia has been requested to incorporate an SFD graphic into the respective sanitation strategy document (SKK). Within 2017 already 134 cities and regencies …

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Fernandez-Martinez, L., Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Thinking - Spreading the knowledge through Scenario SFDs in Ghana SFD Promotion Initiative

After exploring the potential of SFDs in predicting the impact of sanitation investment projects across the sanitation service chain, a new feature was developed called “trend graphs” or “Scenario …

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Andersson, K., 2017

SFD Thinking - Resource Value Mapping based on SFDs SFD Promotion Initiative

Inspired by the SFD, the Resource Value Mapping tool (REVAMP) is being developed at Stockholm Environment Initiative (SEI) for quickly estimating, visualizing and valuing the resources that could be …

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Peal, A., 2018

SFD Thinking - A comparison of methods for excreta flow analysis: WHO/UNICEF JMP and SFD PI SFD Promotion Initiative

Wherefrom do we get data on the sanitation status in cities and countries and what qualities do these data need to have to be relevant either for JMP reporting or to be used in developing an SFD for …

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Dewhurst, 2018

SFD Thinking - SFD creation process and impacts (Case of Nairobi, Kenya) SFD Promotion Initiative

The SFD report produced for Nairobi City involved a broad array of stakeholders from the outset. This resulted in a high degree of cooperation, as participants “bought-in” to the concept, fully …

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Salian, P., 2016

SFD Thinking - Adding iconography can make it easier to grasp the sanitation reality of a city: Experiences from a workshop in Uganda SFD Promotion Initiative

In a town sanitation planning workshop in Apac, Uganda, the SFD was chosen as a visual tool to highlight the critical issues in sanitation existing in the towns and to have a common understanding of …

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GIZ, LWSC, LCC, 2019

The development and use of SFDs for better sanitation investment planning A case story from Lusaka (Zambia)

The CSF-Lusaka project supports its implementing partners in the use of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs) to better understand and illustrate the sanitation situation in Lusaka City, the capital of Zambia. …

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Various Authors, 2019

SFD Week 2019, Rajasthan, India SFD Week material

The SFD week conducted from 2nd to 5th April 2019, was a three-day conclave on sanitation that helped around 140 sector players, from across India and beyond, to not only learn from the deliberations …

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Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., 2019

City Service Delivery Assessment for Citywide Inclusive Sanitation Tool and User Guide

What is the CSDA tool? A Faecal Waste Flow Diagram (SFD) illustrates what the sanitation situation is citywide, but not the underlying reasons for that situation. The City Service Delivery …

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Shrestha, J., Bajracharya, B., Nhemhaphuki, S., 2019

SFD Report - Bheemdatt, Nepal SFD Promotion Initiative

Bheemdatt municipality is located in Kanchanpur District of Sudur Paschim Pradesh, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 171.63 square kilometres. It is home to 62,050 people as per census 2011. …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Kirtipur Municipality, Nepal

Kirtipur is one of the historical cities, which was declared as municipality among 58 municipalities under the Municipal Act in 1996 (2053 B. S., in Nepali calendar) within the Kathmandu valley. The …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Tokha Municipality, Nepal

Tokha Municipality is an ancient city of Kathmandu district in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The total population of Tokha Municipality is 99,032 residing in 25,561 households. Majority of people of Tokha …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Kageshwori Manohara Municipality, Nepal

Kageshwori Manohara Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province No.3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 102,235 residing in 26,166 households. People rely on either …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Madhyapur Thimi Municipality, Nepal

Madhyapur Thimi Municipality is located in Bhaktapur district in Province no.3 of Nepal, consisting of 9 wards. The total population of the municipality is 83,036 residing in 20,302 households. …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Nagarjun Municipality, Nepal

Nagarjun Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province no. 3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 67,420 people residing in 16,746 households. The major sources of …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Tarakeshwor Municipality, Nepal

Tarakeshwor Municipality is located in Kathmandu district in Province no. 3 of Nepal. The total population of the municipality is 81,443 people residing on 20,133 households. Most people are …

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SFD PI, 2017

SFD Manual (in Arabic, English and French) SFD Promotion Initiative

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) presents a clear picture of the outcome arising from wastewater and faecal sludge management practices and services in a city …

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Eawag & CDD Society, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Bangalore, India

Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka is the third largest city and the fifth largest metropolitan area in India and is fast growing. It is a centre for education, IT and biotechnology, advanced …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Bhaktapur Municipality, Nepal

Bhaktapur Municipality is located in Bhaktapur district of Province no.3 of Nepal. The total number of people is 81,748, living in 17,639 households. Majority of the population of Bhaktapur …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Budhanilkantha Municipality, Nepal

Budhanilkantha Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal with a total population of 153,303 people residing in 32,039 households. Most of the population are dependent …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Chandragiri Municipality, Nepal

Chandragiri Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal with a total population of 85,198 residing in 20,532 households. The main sources of drinking water in Chandragiri …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Dakshinkali Municipality, Nepal

Dakshinkali Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The total population is 24,297 people residing in 6,925 households. Majority of the population (80%) are …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Godawari Municipality, Nepal

Godawari Municipality is located in Lalitpur District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The municipality consist of 14 wards with the total population of 116,045 residing in 18,232 households. The majority …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Lalitpur Metropolitan city, Nepal

Lalitpur Metropolitan city which literary means ‘the city of fine arts’ is located in Lalitpur district of Province no.3 of Nepal. The city consist of 29 wards with the total population of 284,922 …

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Eawag & CDD Society, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Mysuru, India

Mysuru City is situated in southern part of the state at 770 m above sea level. According to the census 2011, the population of Mysuru was 893,062 and number of households (HH) were 209,650. Overall, …

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Yadava, H., Bandyopadhyay, S., Kumari, G., 2019

SFD Lite Report - Rajgir, India

Rajgir is an ancient town within the district of Nalanda in the state of Bihar. According to Census (2011), Rajgir has a total population of 41,587 living in 7,030 households. 20% of the excreta is …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Gokarneshwor Municipality, Nepal

Gokarneshwor Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. The municipality consists of 9 wards with the total population of 107,351 people residing in 27,106 households. …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

Kathmandu Metropolitan city is the eldest metropolitan city and capital of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, located in Kathmandu district of Province no.3 of Nepal. The city consists of 32 …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Mahalaxmi Municipality, Nepal

Mahalaxmi Municipality is one of the historic municipalities of Lalitpur district located in province no.3 of Nepal. The municipality consists of 10 wards with the total population of 112,157 people …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Shankharapur Municipality, Nepal

Shankharapur Municipality is located in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. It consists of 13 wards with the total population of 27,202 people residing in 5,607 households. The main …

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CWIS TA Hub & ENPHO, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Suryabinayak Municipality, Nepal

Suryabinayak Municipality is located in Bhaktapur District in Province No. 3 of Nepal. It consists of 10 wards with the total population of 113,471 people residing in 19,179 households. The majority …

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Eawag, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Chennai, India

Chennai, the capital of state of Tamil Nadu is located on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. It is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India. The estimated present …

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CSE, 2019

SFD Presentation - Methodology for Data Collection

This presentation shows several methods of sourcing primary and secondary data, that is required for the preparation of SFDs. It also features CSE's experiences with data collection and pictures from …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Promotion Initiative Phase III SFD Promotion Initiative

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) is a tool to readily understand and communicate how excreta physically flows through a city or town. For more information on …

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SFD PI, 2020

SFD Manual (in Portugese and Spanish)

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) presents a clear picture of the outcome arising from wastewater and faecal sludge management practices and services in a city …

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Luthra, B., Gupta, E.,, 2020

Managing Septage in Ganga Cities An analysis of excreta management in 21 priority towns through SFDs

Namami Gange (a national mission for cleaning the Ganga River) is not just about physical cleaning of the river, it is about rejuvenating it and ensuring that it is ever flowing (Aviral) with clean …

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University of Leeds, 2021

SFD Promotion Initiative Phase 3: Enhancing User Experience

This report is a summary of a virtual meeting held on 9th September 2020, and hosted by the University of Leeds. The background information is found below. In Phase 3 the SFD-PI are working to …

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Peal, A. and Kapulu, C., 2021

City-level quantification and profiling of sanitation workers Options for integrating sanitation worker assessments in the shit flow diagram process

Sanitation workers are a vital workforce, key to Sustainable Development Goal 6, and yet they are often denied their rights to safe work. But how can working conditions be improved, if authorities …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.7 Dhaka, Bangladesh Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.10 Palu, Indonesia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Furlong, C., 2015

SFD Report - Kisumu City, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Kisumu is the principal city of western Kenya and the third largest city in Kenya. It covers an approximate area of 297 km2 and sits on the shores of Lake Victoria. The city is divided into two …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Tumkur, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tumkur (also known as Tumakuru) is located along the Pune-Bangalore National Highway N°4. The sewerage network covers half of the population, but there is also a high dependence on septic tanks, …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Solapur, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Solapur is located on the south-eastern border of Maharashtra State. The population of the city is 951,118 persons. One-fifth of city’s population depends on public toilets while septic tanks and …

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Hassib, Y., 2015

SFD Report - Yei, South Sudan SFD Promotion Initiative

Providing water and sanitation to Yei population is one of the concerns of the government, considering that around 60% of the households use pit latrines with minimal stability, mud floor and low …

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Gunawan, A., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Khulna, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Khulna is located in the south-western part of Bangladesh, with a population of 1.5 million and a total area of 46 km2. Its National policy and strategy documents encourage both NGOs and the private …

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Harada, H., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Nonthaburi, Thailand SFD Promotion Initiative

Nonthaburi City Municipality is the principal city of Nonthaburi province, located to the north of Bangkok. It has a registered population of 256,457 in the area of 38.9 km2 (NCM 2015a). Most of the …

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Harada, H., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Danang, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Danang is located at the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is the fourth most populated city in the country with approximately 1,007,400 inhabitants in 2014 (GSO 2015). The total land area of the …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.1 Santa Cruz, Bolivia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.2 Tegucigalpa, Honduras Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.3 Managua, Nicaragua Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.4 Maputo, Mozambique Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.5 Dakar, Senegal Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.6 Kampala, Uganda Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.8 Delhi, India Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.9 Phnom Penh, Cambodia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.11 Dumaguete, Philippines Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.12 Manila, Philippines Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Srikakulam India Draft

Srikakulam is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and is an important administrative and commercial center. The population of city is 133,911 persons. Lack of sewerage network, sewage treatment …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Cuttack India Draft

Cuttack lies in the east coast plains of India; it is the capital and one of the oldest cities of Odisha. Population of the city reaches 606,007 persons, who are mainly dependent on malfunctioning …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Aizawl India Draft

Aizawl is the capital of Mizoram State located in the east of the Himalayan region of India. The density of the city, 2,823 persons per sq. km, is higher compared to state average, 52 persons per sq. …

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Hassib, Y., Roeder, L., 2015

SFD Report - Moshi, Tanzania SFD Promotion Initiative

Moshi municipality is an administrative district in Kilimanjaro province whose population has growth from less than 10,000 to 185, 000 residents. The majority of households depend on on-site …

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Roeder, L., 2016

SFD Report - Kochi, India SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Kochi (also known as 'Cochin') is the touristic and economic capital of the state of Kerala located in the south-west region of India. The municipal boundary of the Corporation Cochin …

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Furlong, C., Mensah, A., 2015

SFD Report - Kumasi, Ghana SFD Promotion Initiative

Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana and lies in the Ashanti Region in the south of the country (Adarkwa, 2011). The city covers approximately 254 sq. km. It has an approximately population of …

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Furlong, C., 2015

SFD Report - Nakuru, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Nakuru is the fourth largest town in Kenya, lying within the Rift Valley and covering an area of 290 km2. Less than 30% of the population is served by the sewerage network, while the majority of the …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Srikakulam, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Srikakulam is a coastal city located in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). It is the district headquarters and is an important administrative and commercial centre. It is one of the oldest …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Aizawl, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Aizawl, capital of Mizoram state, lies in east Himalayan region of India. It is the largest city of the state. Area under municipal council, which is 103.93 sq.km, has been chosen for the study. …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Cuttack, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Cuttack city, lies in east coast plains of India, is the former capital and one of the oldest cities of Odisha, established in 1876 as municipality. It is the district headquarter and is situated at …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Bikaner, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Gwalior, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Gwalior is a historical city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. There is sewerage network covering around 80% of the population. In spite having good sewerage network within the city only 19% of …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., 2015

SFD Report - Agra, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Agra, the former capital of India is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. There is sewerage network which covers half of the population. Rest of the city is …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Varma, R. S., Padhi S. K., 2015

SFD Report - Tiruchirappalli, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tiruchirappalli, also known as Trichy, is one of the largest cities in Tamil Nadu and is known as an important trade, education and pilgrimage centre. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is …

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Brandes, K., Schoebitz, L., Kimwaga, R., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania SFD Promotion Initiative

Dar es Salaam lies on the coast of the Indian Ocean and is the largest city and economic hub of Tanzania (DCC, 2004). The 2015 population is estimated to have reached more than 5 million inhabitants …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., Yadav, A., 2016

SFD Report - Dewas, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Dewas city is located on the Malwa plateau of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is headquarters of the Dewas district. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Varma, R.S., Padhi, S.K., Yadav, A., 2016

SFD Report - Delhi, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Delhi is the capital of India. It is officially known as the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The population of NCT of Delhi as per the Census 2011 is 16,787,941. The …

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Brandes, K., Schoebitz, L., Nguyen, V.-A., Strande, L., 2016

SFD Report - Hanoi, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is located in the Northern part of the country in the Red river delta. The urban districts cover an area of 304 km² with an estimated population of 3,147,000 …

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Ndounla, J., Schoebitz, L. Sonko, E.M., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Bignona, Senegal SFD Promotion Initiative

Bignona and Tenghory Trans-Gambian are in the region of Casamance, Senegal. The study area is comprised of seven districts (six in Bignona, one is the neighboring district ofTenghory Trans-Gambian in …

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Cross, X., Buckley, C., 2016

SFD Report - Durban, South Africa

The city of Durban is managed by the eThekwini Municipality, which covers a wider area including 55% urban and 45% rural sectors. In 2015 the population was estimated from projections of the last …

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Roeder, L., 2016

SFD Report (draft) - Tirupati, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tirupati is situated in Chittoor district in the southern of the state of Andhra Pradesh with a total population of just under 375,000. The town is a pilgrimage center and attracts a total diurnal …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Hawassa, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Hawassa is the capital of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency estimates that the population of Hawassa is 351,469 and it has …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Lima, Peru SFD Promotion Initiative

Lima the capital of Peru and the third largest city in Latin America covering an area of 2,700 km2. Metropolitan Lima consists of the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao and is …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Dhaka, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of world's most populated cities. ‘Dhaka City’ is defined in this report as the areas under the jurisdiction of the two Dhaka City Corporations. They cover …

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Veses, O., Dinku, H., Evans, B., Peal, A., 2016

SFD Report - Bishoftu, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Bishoftu is located in the state of Oromia, Ethiopia, approximately 47 km south east of Addis Ababa. Its topography is undulating and characterized by flat land on the north and east parts of the …

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Veses, O., Dinku, H., Evans, B., Peal, A., 2016

SFD Report - Bure, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Bure is located 400 km north of the capital Addis Ababa and 148 km south west of Bahir Dar and is within the Amhara State, Western Gojjam Administrative Zone of Ethiopia. It has a total urban …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Santa Cruz, Bolivia SFD Promotion Initiative

Santa Cruz de la Serria Metropolitan Area (SCMA) is the second largest urban area in Bolivia. It is a major economic centre in Bolivia. There are approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in SCMA. The …

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Veses, O., Dinku, D., Assefa, E., Peal, A., Evans, B., 2016

SFD Report - Bahir Dar, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Bahir Dar is a city located northwest Ethiopia with a tropical savannah climate. According to the Town Administration, the population is 318,429 people, where 85% live in the urban and 15% in the …

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Veses, O., Dinku, H., Evans, B., Peal, A., 2016

SFD Report - Holleta, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Holleta is an Ethiopian city located in the Oromia region at a distance of 35 Km from Addis Ababa, lying between levations of 2,320 and 2,460 meters above sea level. The average rainfall in Holleta …

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Klinger, M., Sherpa, M., 2016

SFD Report - Tikapur, Nepal SFD Promotion Initiative

Tikapur is a municipality of over 60,000 inhabitants (56,136, 2011 census), located on the right bank of the Karnali river in the Terai district of Kailali, far western region. It is a “new town” …

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Thakur, P., Singh, S., 2017

SFD Report - Patna, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River. The city is surrounded by two other rivers on two other sides: Sone River and Pun-Pun River. Patna is the second …

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Mangharam, Anushka, 2017

SFD Report - Cape Cod, MA, USA

Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from mainland Massachusetts, USA. It has a population of 215,888 people, nearly doubling in the summer. The sanitation infrastructure …

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Mangharam, A., 2017

SFD Lite Report - Madison, WI, USA

Madison is the capital of the state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County, and is home to 252,551 people. Sometimes described as the City of Four Lakes, it comprises the four successive …

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Mangharam, Anushka, 2017

SFD Report - St. Louis, MO, USA

The City of St. Louis is located within the state of Missouri, USA. Built along the Mississippi River, it borders St. Louis County but is not a part of it. The Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District …

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Mangharam, A., 2017

SFD Lite Report - King County, WA, USA

King County is located in the state of Washington in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. It has a population of 2.1 million people and is the most populous county in the state. Most of King …

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Badruddin, I., 2018

SFD Report - Thatta, Pakistan SFD Promotion Initiative

Thatta is the main city of Thatta district, in the province of Sindh, Pakistan and has a population of 101,833 (Census, 2017) individuals in 17,998 households. Thatta city is spread over an area of …

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Badruddin, I., 2018

SFD Report - Jatoi, Pakistan

Jatoi city has twenty-two urban wards and is located in the Muzaffargarh district of Southern Punjab. The city is a peri-urban area and most of the settlements are informal. Lack of available land is …

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Al-Muyeed, A., Nath, S.K., Basar, M.S., 2018

SFD Report - Saidpur, Bangladesh

Saidpur is a populous city in Nilphamari District, Bangladesh. It came into existence on 30 April 1958 as a municipality, and has 15 wards. It is an ‘A’ category municipality, which means it has …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Report - Ouahigouya, Burkina Faso

Ouahigouya is a mid-sized city located in the northern part of Burkina Faso and is the capital of the Province of Yatenga. Ouahigouya is approximately 180 km from Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Report - Lahan, Nepal

Lahan Municipality is a small commercial town in Siraha District, located in province number 2 in Nepal. It has a population of about 93,000 people and is nearly 350 kilometres east of the capital …

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Dumpert, J.W., Mok, S., Kuy, D., 2018

SFD Report - Kampong Chhnang, Cambodia

The Cambodian town of Kampong Chhnang is the capital of Kampong Chhnang Province. The Province is located to the northwest of Phnom Penh, the country’s capital and occupies the south-eastern edge of …

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Dumpert, J.W., Mok, S., Kuy, D., 2018

SFD Report - Battambang, Cambodia

Battambang is the capital city of Battambang province in north western Cambodia. The city is considered the commercial hub for Cambodia's northwest, connecting the region to Phnom Penh and Thailand. …

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Fischer, P., Westhof, L., Dang, T., 2018

SFD Report - Buon Ma Thuot, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Buon Ma Thuot is the capital city of Dak Lak province. It is located in the southwest of Dak Lak and borders Dak Nong province in the west and four districts of Dak Lak province in the other …

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Westhof L., Dang, T., 2018

SFD Report - Da Lat, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Da Lat is located on the Langbiang highland plateau at the northern area of Lam Dong Province. The city consists of 12 wards and 4 communes with a total population of 226,978 people by the end of …

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GFA Consulting Group GmbH, 2018

SFD Report - Kakuma, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

The SFD graphic and report covers Kakuma town and Kakuma refugee camp. Kakuma town is located in northern Kenya, in the northwestern part of Turkana County approximately 123 km north of the county …

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Kappauf, L., Heyer, A., Makuwa, T., Titova, Y., 2018

SFD Report - Lusaka, Zambia SFD Promotion Initiative

Lusaka is the capital city of Zambia. Situated in the central part of Zambia on the Central African Plateau it is one of the fastest-developing cities in Southern Africa. Lusaka is both the political …

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Heyer, A., Kappauf, L., 2018

SFD Report - Mavoko, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Mavoko Town is one of the eight sub-counties of Machakos County in Kenya, which is located around 30km southeast of Nairobi. The whole area of Mavoko covers 963 km2 including large rural parts. This …

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Centre for Water and Sanitation, CEPT University, 2018

SFD Report - Panchgani, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Panchgani is a hill station and municipal council in the Satara district of Maharashtra state. It is situated about 285 km from Mumbai and 18 km from Mahabaleshwar. The Panchgani municipal boundary …

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GIZ, 2018

SFD Report - Rishikesh, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Rishikesh is an important pilgrim city on the banks of river Ganga in Dehradun district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand. In April 2018, Rishikesh Municipality (Nagar Palika Parishad) was upgraded to …

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Talamini, G., Burchard, A., 2018

SFD Report - Manaus, Brasil (Portuguese and English) SFD Promotion Initiative

O Município de Manaus é a capital do estado do Amazonas e está localizado na Região Norte do Brasil. A Região Hidrográfica chama-se Amazônica e ocupa 45% do território nacional. A densidade …

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Talamini, G., Burchard, A., 2018

SFD Report - São Paulo, Brasil (Portuguese and English) SFD Promotion Initiative

O gráfico SFD foi construído para o município de São Paulo, capital do Estado de São Paulo e integrante da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. É o município mais populoso do país e um dos …

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Kajyibwami, J., Burchard-Levine, A., 2018

SFD Report - Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (in English and French) SFD Promotion Initiative

Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina Faso and the largest city of the country. It is located in the central region of Burkina Faso and had a population of 2,532,311 in 2015 (INSD, 2015) and …

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Feumba, R., Burchard-Levine, A., 2018

SFD Report - Yaoundé, Cameroon (in English and French) SFD Promotion Initiative

Yaoundé is the political capital of Cameroon and had 3,660,082 inhabitants with 775,911 households in 2017 (updated from RGPH, 2010). The area covered for this SFD is 310km², which is beyond the …

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Feumba, R., Burchard, A., Kappauf, L., 2018

SFD Report - Douala, Cameroon (in English and French) SFD Promotion Initiative

Douala is the economic capital of Cameroon. In 2005, Douala had 1,907,479 inhabitants (RGPH, 2010). With a growth rate of 4.7%, the population of the city was estimated to be 3,309,939 inhabitants in …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Varadharajan, A., 2017

SFD Report - Bodhgaya, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Bodhgaya is a small town, located in the Gaya district of Bihar. A population size of 51,900 was considered for the preparation of the SFD. There is no treatment facility available for sewage and …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Yadav, A., Varadharajan, A., 2017

SFD Report - Bongaon, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Bongaon city lies in the state of West Bengal, India. It has a population of 108,864 of which the slum population accounts to 37.04% of the total population (data from 2011). All households are …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Bhatnagar, A., 2017

SFD Report - Buxar, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Buxar city is situated on the banks of River Ganga in the state of Bihar, India. The population of the city is 102,861, while slum population is 10,161 (data from 2011). It was observed that there …

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Rohilla, S.K.,Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Gupta, B., 2017

SFD Report - Chunar, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Chunar is situated on the banks of River Ganga and River Jirgo, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 37,185 (data from 2011). There is no sewerage network in the …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Bhatnagar, A., 2017

SFD Report - Gangaghat, India SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Gangaghat is located 83 km south west from Lucknow, the state capital. The population of the city is 84,072 (data from 2011) with a population density of 17,122 persons per sq.km. It …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Yadav, A., 2017

SFD Report - Katihar, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Katihar, the district headquarters of Katihar District, is located in the state of Bihar, India. The population of Katihar city is 240,838 with a population density of 9,437 persons per sq.km (Data …

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Rohilla, S.K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S.K., Gupta, B., 2017

SFD Report - Ramnagar, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Ramnagar city is situated on the banks of the Ganga River in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The population of the city is 49,132 and its population density is 13,572 persons per sq.km (data from …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Wa, Ghana SFD Promotion Initiative

The Upper West Region of Ghana is located in the north-western corner of Ghana with the Wa Municipality in the south-eastern part of the Upper West region. Currently, the total population of the …

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Briemberg, J., 2018

SFD Report - Bilwi, Nicaragua SFD Promotion Initiative

Bilwi (also known as Puerto Cabezas) is located in the northeast of Nicaragua on the Caribbean coast. The current population size is estimated to be between 66,790 and 73,615 based on between 12,205 …

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Collet, S., Yesaya, M., Tilley, E., 2016

SFD Report - Blantyre, Malawi SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Blantyre is the commercial and financial centre of Malawi and is located around 300 kilometres south-east of the capital, Lilongwe. Blantyre is situated at an altitude of approximately …

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Akwunwa, N., Ogunlade, A., 2018

SFD Report - Enugu, Nigeria SFD Promotion Initiative

Enugu City is a major commercial and industrial hub in southeastern Nigeria with an estimated population of just over a million people, although this figure increases during the daytime as many …

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Shrestha, J., Shrestha, R., 2018

SFD Report - Itahari, Nepal SFD Promotion Initiative

Itahari Sub-Metropolitan is the largest city in Sunsari District located in the Province No.1 of south-eastern Nepal. The total population was 1,40,517 living in 33,794 households extended in the …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Report - Kasungu, Malawi SFD Promotion Initiative

Kasungu municipality is approximately 130 kilometres north-west of the capital of Malawi, Lilongwe. It has a total population of 77,619. The population swells up during the day, except on Sundays …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Chattogram, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Chattogram City Corporation is the Commercial Capital and second largest city in Bangladesh. Chattogram City Corporation is the Commercial Capital and second largest city in Bangladesh. The city …

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Panse, D., Kale, S., Karve, M., 2018

SFD Report - Alandi, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Alandi is a pilgrimage town and has a municipal council in Pune district. The population of town as per Census 2011 is 28,645 persons. The density of city is 4,188 persons per sq.km. which is very …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Cumilla, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Cumilla city corporation stands on the bank of the river Gumti in Cumilla district. Cumilla City Corporation (CoCC) consists of 27 wards with current population 0.5 million and an area of 53.04 …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Report - Gazipur, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Gazipur is one of the districts of Dhaka division and Gazipur City Corporation comprises of 57 wards and its total area is 329.53 sq. km. The total population of Gazipur City Corporation is about 2.5 …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Mymensingh, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Mymensingh is one of the districts of Mymensingh division. Mymensingh is governed by Mymensingh City Corporation which comprises of 21 wards. According to data from 2017 the total population of …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Narayanganj, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Narayanganj City Corporation (NCC) is situated in the south of Dhaka city within the district of Narayanganj, part of Dhaka division. Narayanganj City Corporation (NCC) is the country’s 7th largest …

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Panse, D., Kale, S., 2018

SFD Report - Pandharpur, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Pandharpur is a well-known pilgrimage town on the banks of Bhima River in Sholapur district, Maharashtra, India. The population of Pandharpur is 98,923 and the floating population is around 10,000 to …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Rajshahi, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) stands on the bank of the river Padma in Rajshahi districts. RCC was established in 1991. It comprises of 30 wards and total area is 96.72 sq. km. The total …

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Al-Muyeed, A., Nath, S. K., Basar, Md. S., 2018

SFD Report - Sakhipur, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Sakhipur is a town of Sakhipur Upazila, tangail, Bangladesh. The city is recognised as a Municipality and consists of 9 wards. The number of households in Sakhipur Municipality is 7,473 and the total …

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WaterAid, 2018

SFD Lite Report - Sylhet, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Sylhet, is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh and is the capital of Sylhet Division. Sylhet City Corporation (SCC) was established in 2002. It comprises of 27 wards and the total area is 26.50 …

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Rodrigues, C., Sivila, L., 2018

SFD Report - Tarija, Bolivia (in Spanish)

Tarija es la capital de la provincia de Cercado y del departamento de Tarija, ubicada en un valle al extremo sur de Bolivia, que hace frontera con Argentina, siendo atravesada por el rio …

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Sanchez, J., Myat, S.S., Kyaw, P.P., 2019

SFD Report - Mandalay, Myanmar SFD Promotion Initiative

Mandalay is located on the bank of the Irrawaddy on a rather flat and low flood plain, in the centre of Myanmar’s dry-zone. Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar. Mandalay experiences …

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Bohnert, K., 2017

SFD Report - Naivasha, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Naivasha sub-county is one of 11 constituencies in Nakuru County, Kenya. This geographical boundary was chosen for the SFD because the local water service provider, Naivasha Water Sewerage and …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S. K., Yadav, A., Varadharajan, A., 2017

SFD Report - Bansberia, India

Bansberia is a town in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, India. Bansberia Municipality was the nerve centre of “Saptagram”, a port city, famous for its inland and foreign trades with Europe …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Bhatnagar, A., Gupta, B., 2017

SFD Report - Bijnor, India

Bijnor city is located 12 km west to the bank of River Ganga and 460 km from Lucknow, the state capital of Uttar Pradesh. Bijnor is the district headquarters of Bijnor district. As per Census 2011, …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Yadav, A., Gupta, B., 2017

SFD Report - Kalpetta, India

Kalpetta is a town and a municipality in the Wayanad district, of Kerala, India. It is the headquarters of Wayanad district as well as the headquarters of Vythiritaluk. It is a bustling town …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Yadav, A., Gupta, B., 2017

SFD Report - Kannur, India

Kannur, also known by its English name Cannanore, is a city in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur district and situated 518 km north of the …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Padhi, S. K., Yadav, A., 2017

SFD Report - Siddipet, India

Siddipet is a city in Siddipet district of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a municipality and the headquarters of Siddipet mandal administrative division. The city is spread over an area of …

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Sharma, R., Kumar, K. R., Venugopal, V., Yadava, H., Narayan, A. S. and Ramachandran, K., 2019

SFD Lite Report - Coimbatore, India

Coimbatore is the second largest city in terms of area in the state of Tamil Nadu. It is one of the fastest growing secondary cities in India and a major hub of textiles, industries, commerce, …

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CWIS TA Hub, South Asia / ENPHO, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Changunarayan Municipality, Nepal

Changunarayan Municipality is one of the historical places located in Bhaktapur district in Province no. 3 of Nepal. The municipality carries historical and archaeological significance and was named …

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Shrestha, J., Bajracharya, B., 2019

SFD Report - Lamahi, Nepal

Lamahi municipality is located in Dang district of province number 5, Nepal. The municipality covers an area of 327 square kilometres along the stretch of East-West highway in the country. The …

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Eawag and CDD Society, 2019

SFD Lite Report - Sircilla, India

Sircilla, founded in 1987, is a second grade municipality in Rajanna Sircilla District in the Indian state of Telangana. According to the 2011 census, the total population is 75,640 and the urban …

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Angdembe, A., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Kathmandu valley lies between the latitudes 27?32’13’’ and 27?49’10’’ north and longitudes 85?11’31’’ and 85?31’38’’ east at a mean elevation about 1,300 metres above sea level. Kathmandu …

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Shrestha, J., Bajracharya, B., Nhemaphuki, S., 2020

SFD Report - Lahan, Nepal

Lahan municipality is located in Siraha district of province number 2, Nepal. The municipality is divided into 24 wards. The municipality is home to 91,766 people as per census 2011. The population …

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Bharti, A., Mankotia, R., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Lakhimpur, India

Lakhimpur Kheri is the largest district in Uttar Pradesh, India, on the border with Nepal. Its administrative capital is the city of Lakhimpur. Lakhimpur Kheri district is a part of Lucknow division, …

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Shrestha, J., Bajracharya, B., 2020

SFD Report - Waling, Nepal

Waling municipality, established in 2053 BS (1997 AD), lies in Syangja district within Gandaki Province of Nepal. The municipality is located within latitude 28° 3 '2.412'' North to 27° 55' 26.58'' …

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Gupta, E., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Aya Nagar, India

Aya Nagar is situated on the Southwestern edge of Delhi. It is the last village of Delhi on the Mehrauli Gurgaon Road which connects South Delhi with the rapidly urbanizing city of Gurgaon in the …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Tinsukia, India

Tinsukia, the headquarter town of Tinsukia district, is situatedon NH-37 in the north-eastern part of the state of Assam, India. Originally Tinsukia was the capital of Motok Kingdom and was known as …

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Puranik, A., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Indore, India

Indore, one of the fastest-growing cities of India, is the largest city of Madhya Pradesh, in terms of its population, with 841 people per sq. km. One of the 100 Indian cities selected under the …

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Avinash, V., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Mandapeta, India

Mandapeta was originally called "Mandavyapuram", which came from Sage Mandukya. Mandapeta is a second-grade municipality established on October 1st, 1958 in East Godavari District in the Indian state …

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Kaushik, N., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Faridabad, India

Faridabad, the south-eastern district in the state of Haryana, was founded in 1607 AD by Sheikh Farid, the treasurer of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, with the object of protecting the Grand Trunk …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Ahraura, India

Ahraura is situated at a distance of 60km from Mirzapur District, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city lies in the Vidhyan Range, and at a distance of 340 km from the state capital, …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Bakshi Ka Talab, India

Bakshi Ka Talab Nagar Panchayat is a city under the Bakshi Ka Talab sub district of Lucknow district in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. City is an organised settlement developed by Lucknow …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Bhagalpur, India

Bhagalpur is a city located on the southern alluvial plains of River Ganga, 220 km east of Patna and 410 km North-West of Kolkata. It is the third-largest urban centre of the state. Bhagalpur city is …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Jamalpur, India

Jamalpur is also known as the Rail City of Bihar. It was established during the British rule for manufacture and repair of wagons, coaches, cranes. The city is located at a distance of 170 km east of …

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Thakur, R., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Jammu, India

Jammu city is situated along the bank of River Tawi in the Union territory (UT) of Jammu & Kashmir. It is also regarded as the summer capital of the UT. Jammu is the district headquarters of Jammu …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Jhansi, India

The city of Jhansi is called as the Gateway to Bundelkhand, situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa at an average elevation of 285 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres from New Delhi and …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Nashik, India

Nashik is an ancient Indian city situated on the banks of river Godavari. Geographically, it is located in the northwest part of the state of Maharashtra in the Western Ghats with mean elevation of …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Noorpur, India

Noorpur is a small town in Bijnor District, Uttar Pradesh and is located 38 km South-East of Bijnor city, District Headquarters. According to Census 2011 Noorpur has a population of 38,801 residing …

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Aggarwal, N., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Sirsa, India

The Sirsa city is a municipal council and the headquarter of Sirsa district in Haryana. It is located at mean elevation of about 205 msl at 29.53°N 75.02°E. It is about 260 km NW of New Delhi and …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Dharamshala, India

Dharamshala is a town situated in the foothills of the Himalayas in the District of Kangra and State of Himachal Pradesh, India. Dharamshala has two distinct features namely Upper and Lower …

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Rai, A., 2020

SFD Report - Kanpur, India

Kanpur is the tenth most populous city in India and the largest city within the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River (KMC, n.d.). Kanpur is a part of the Atal …

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Singh, A., 2020

SFD Report - Lucknow, India

Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Lucknow is also the tehsil and the district headquarters of the Lucknow district (TCPD, 2018). The urban local body governing the …

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Kumar, N., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Barwar, India

Barwar is a town and a Nagar Panchayat in Lakhimpur Kheri District in the state of Uttar Pradesh It is a crowded town situated near Shahjanhanpur. The Gomti river flows through the town. The town is …

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Mishra, M., Tripathi, A., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Chunar, India

This report was compiled as part of the SFD Promotion Initiative project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Chunar is situated on the banks of River Ganga and River Jargo, in …

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Mishra, M., Thripathi, A., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Cuttack, India

This report was compiled as part of the SFD Promotion Initiative project funded by Deutsche Gesellschaftfür Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). Cuttack is located at 20?31'23” N and 85?47'17” …

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Mishra, M., Tripathi, A., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Haldia, India

Haldia is a city and municipality in Purba Medinipur district in the Indian State of West Bengal. The Haldia Township is bordered by Haldi River an off shoot of the Ganges River. Haldia is located at …

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UPM Umwelt-Projekt-Management GmbH, 2020

SFD Report - Bhola Municipality, Bangladesh

Bhola is one of the administrative districts (Zila) located in south-central Bangladesh with a total area of 3,404km2 and a population of 1.8 million inhabitants. Part of the district is Bhola island …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Bijnor, India

Bijnor city is located 12 km west to the bank of River Ganga and 460 km from Lucknow, the state capital of Uttar Pradesh. Bijnor is the district headquarter of Bijnor district. As per Census 2011, …

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Ansari, S., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Bithoor, India

Bithoor or Bithur is a town in Kanpur Nagar District, 23.4 kilometres by road north of the centre of Kanpur city, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Bithoor is situated on the right bank of the Ganga, and is a …

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Ansari, S., Jaiswal, S., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Unnao, India

The town of Unnao is the headquarters of Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh. It compromises of 6 Tehsil and 16 Blocks. The District is part of Central Ganga Plain and lies between Latitude 26°8' N & …

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Ansari, S., Ahmed N., 2020

SDF Lite Report - Prayagraj, India

Prayagraj is coined with the name Prayag mean "place of sacrifice or offering". The city was earlier known as Allahabad, Illahabad. The city is the headquarters of Prayagraj district in Uttar …

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WaterAid Bangladesh & CWIS-FSM Support Cell, DPHE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Sakhipur, Bangladesh

Sakhipur, recognized as municipality, is a town of Sakhipur Upazila which is located about 39 km by road from Tangail and 77 km northwest of Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. Sakhipur became a …

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Akpeimeh, G., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Eket, Nigeria

Eket is a coastal city in the southern region of Nigeria in the vast low-lying region where the Niger-delta drains into the Gulf of Guinea. The population is 211,255 (as of 2021) of which 80% are …

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Environment and Public Health Organization, 2021

SFD Report - Dhulikhel, Nepal

Dhulikhel municipality is located in Kavrepalanchok district of Bagmati province, Nepal. The municipality is divided into 12 wards. The municipality is home to 33,981 people as per census 2011. The …

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ITN-BUET, 2021

SFD Lite Report - Rangpur, Bangladesh

Rangpur City Corporation (RpCC) is one of the twelve City Corporations in Bangladesh and is located in the Rangpur division, northern region of the country. The geographical coordinates of Rangpur …

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Roeder, L., 2016

SFD Report -Tirupati, India

Tirupati is situated in Chittoor district in the southern of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The town is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Tirupati (MCT) and is divided into 36 wards. The …

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Kumar, N., 2020

SFD Lite Report - Sidhauli, India

Sidhauli is a town and a Nagar Panchayat in Sitapur District in the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is a crowded town situated near Lucknow. The Sidhauli city is divided into 14 wards. The Gomti River …

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Sharma, K., Ramesh, B. K., 2021

SFD Lite Report - Srivilliputhur, India

Srivilliputhur is a town and promoted as a first-grade municipality in the year 1984 located in north of Rajapalayam in Virudhunagar district in the Indian state of Tamilnadu. As of 2011, the town …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - Bandipora, India

Bandipora city is the headquarters in Bandipora District. Bandipora District is one of the 22 districts of Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory. The District lies in Northern Kashmir with Baramulla …

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Madrigal, D., Pérez, S., 2019

SFD Report - Alajuela, Costa Rica

The Canton of Alajuela is located within the province of Alajuela in the north-central part of Costa Rica, covering an area of approximately 388.43 km². The canton is geopolitically sub-divided into …

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Biscan, B., Pérez Monforte, S., Schöbitz, L., Kilbride, A., 2019

SFD Report - Cap-Haïtien, Haiti

Cap-Haïtien is located in Haiti, in the Caribbean region. It is Haiti’s second largest city after its capital, Portau-Prince, with an estimated population of 404,766 in 2017 (IDB, 2017). The city …

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CWIS-FSM Support Cell, DPHE, 2021

SFD Lite Report - Jamalpur Municipality Bangladesh

Jamalpur is a fast-growing city, which is 174 km away from the Dhaka city. It is beside the Brahmaputra River and well connected with road, rail and water. It is one of the oldest towns in the …

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CSE, 2020

SFD Lite Report - JJ Resettlement Colony, Savda Delhi India

The Savda Ghevra JJ Resettlement Colony was established in 2006. Spread across 250 acres, it was built on agricultural land owned by the neighbouring villages- Savda and Ghevra. It is located 30-40 …

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CWIS-FSM Support Cell, DPHE, 2021

SFD Lite Report - Pabna Municipality, Bangladesh

Pabna is a fast-growing city, which is 153 km away from the Dhaka city. It is beside the Isamoti River and well connected with road, water, and railways. It is one of the oldest towns in the …