SFD Library

These publications, presentations and SFDs have been kindly made available to the SFD Promotion Initiative by the consortium members and others active in the field of excreta management, and are hosted here by the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) library. The SuSanA library has a focus on sanitation related literature and you are welcome to read through the selection of SFD related documents included below. The download link will lead you to the SuSanA library where you will be able to find more information on each document and download it for free.

 

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Veses, O. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Axum, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Axum is located in the Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau. The town is 1,041km away from the capital, Addis Ababa, with a population of 46,887. The number of Open Defecation …

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Oscar Veses, Brabara Evans, Susanne Bieker, 2018

Promotion of SFDs: Review of Phase 1 Report

This document represents a review report of the experience gained from producing SFDs from GIZ, WEDC, UoL, CSE and Eawag under the of the Phase I of the “Promotion of Shit Flow Diagrams” project …

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Various authors, 2015

Proof of concept of estimates for the unsafe return of human excreta to the environment Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Pete Kolsky and James Bartram are leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information is …

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Roeder, L., 2015

SFD Report - Nashik, India SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Nashik is located in the northwest of the state of Maharashtra in the Western Ghats at the source of the Godavari River. As per Census 2011 Nashik has a total population of just under 1.5 …

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Various authors, 2015

Development and dissemination of fecal sludge management toolkit for investors, planners and consultants Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Thammarat Koottatep is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the project is to …

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Ulbrich, T., 2015

Technical Feasibility of decentralised Greywater Treatment Units to improve Sanitation in peri-urban Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Following the global development of large cities, Ulaanbaatar, capital of Mongolia, is currently facing the challenges that evolve from urbanisation. Informal settlements (‘ger areas’) are rapidly …

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Various authors, 2015

Theoretical and practical advantages to applying performance-based payment structures for sanitation service delivery Various documents on results from research grant

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Sujatha Srinivasan is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of this project is to …

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Schoebitz, L. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Kampala, Uganda SFD Promotion Initiative

Kampala is the capital and most populated city in Uganda, with a population of 1,507,080. The total area of the city is 178 km². In line with rapid urbanization, approximately 60% of …

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Furlong, C. et al., 2016

How to prepare an excreta flow diagram (SFD) SFD Promotion Initiative, 39th WEDC conference, Kumasi, Ghana - July 2016

This presentation was held at the 39th WEDC conference in Kumasi, Ghana in July 2016 by the SFD Promotion Initiative. The objective of the session was to introduce the tools available for SFD …

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Hassib, Y., Etemadi, H., 2016

SFD Report - Kabul, Afghanistan SFD Promotion Initiative

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,289,000. It was selected for …

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Raj, S. et al., 2016

SFD Exchange Meeting - its use and potential in the sanitation sector Presentation from the SFD Exchange Meeting at World Water Week 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden

The SFD Promotion Initiative has been working over the past year to develop a consistent method and the tools for producing excreta flow diagrams, the SFD (also called Shit Flow Diagrams). SFD is a …

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Furlong, C. et al., 2016

Learnings from implementing the excreta flow diagram (SFD) process in Kumasi

Abstract: Excreta, Faecal or Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs) are away to clearly represent how excreta flows along the sanitation service chain. This approach has already gaines popularity and many SFDs …

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Fernández-Martínes, L., 2016

Using the Shit/Excreta Flow Diagrams (SFDs) for modelling future scenarios in Kumasi, Ghana A research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University

The high population density of the cities does not allow families to safely abandon onsite sanitation facilities. This creates a need for a sanitation service chain to safely manage feacal waste. …

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Fernandez-Martinez, L., et al., 2017

Predicting the impact of sanitation investment projects on the Sanitation Service Chain (SSC), using excreta flow diagrams (SFDs)

Onsite sanitation systems are the predominant sanitation option worldwide (Medland et al., 2015). High population density in cities in low-middle income countries means that faecal sludge (FS) from …

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Rohilla, S., Watwani, J., et al., 2016

Urban Shit Where does this sludge go?

Every four in 10 houses in Indian cities and towns use latrines connected to septic tanks. Most municipalities do not have a proper plan to dispose of the faecal sludge collected in these tanks.

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Luthra, B., et al., 2016

Pipe Dream - Cleaning Ganga Down to Earth Cover Story

Two flagship programmes of Prime Minister Narendra Modi are working at cross-purposes. By 2019, when Swachh Bharat Mission comes to an end, some 30 million septic tanks and pits would have been dug …

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Kampala Capital City Authority, 2017

Behaviour Change Communication Kampala Faecal Sludge Management Program

Guiding document for Landlords, Tenants, and Local Leaders on Safe Pit Emptying, Improved Emptiable Toilets, and Toilet Hygiene.

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Kampala Capital City Authority, 2017

Minimum Standards for Onsite Sanitation Technology Options in Kampala

KCCA’s current drive towards improving faecal sludge management in Kampala is cognisant of the city sanitation challenges and significant contribution of sanitation to economic and social …

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SFD Promotion Initiative, 2017

SFD Manual (Version 2.0) Volume 1 and 2

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as shit flow diagram, SFD) presents a clear picture of the outcome arising from wastewater and faecal sludge management practices and services in a city …

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Blackett, I., 2017

SFD: The Indonesian Case

An excreta flow diagram (also often described as a shit flow diagram or SFD) is a tool to readily understand and visually communicate how excreta flows through a city or town. Based on the …

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Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), 2017

BMZ Water Strategy A key contribution to implementing the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement

Water and sanitation are key to implementing Agenda 2030 and the Paris climate agreement. The new water strategy of the Fed-eral Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) accounts for …

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World Health Organization, 2017

Climate-resilient water safety plans Managing health risks associated with climate variability and change

Medium- and long-term planning for an adequate and safe supply of drinking-water should be set in the context of growing external uncertainties arising from changes in the climate and environment. …

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Blackett, I. and Hawkins, P., 2017

FSM Innovation Case Studies Case Studies on the Business, Policy and Technology of Faecal Sludge Management (second edition)

Worldwide, 2.7 billion people rely on onsite sanitation and more than 4.5 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation services. Yet, in many places there is still no management …

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Arne Panesar, Thomas Kauter-Eby, Susanne Bieker, Suresh Rohilla, Regina Dube, Kim Augustin, Roland Schertenleib, 2018

The SuSanA platform and the Shit Flow Diagram - tools to achieve more sustainable sanitation for all A publication within: A BETTER WORLD Vol. 3: Actions and commitments to Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all

Daniela Krahl of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Development and Cooperation (BMZ) has said that: “The water strategy of our Ministry is seen as a model because it addresses the spirit of …

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GIZ, 2017

SFD Tools and Methods

SFD Tools and Methods. Dec 4 2017, 2 PM Content: 1. Presentation: The SFD Manual: a guide to content and process, Rebecca Scott, WEDC (start 2:30 min.) 2. Presentation: The SFD Review …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.7 Dhaka, Bangladesh Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.10 Palu, Indonesia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Kisumu City, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Kisumu is the principal city of western Kenya and the third largest city in Kenya. It covers an approximate area of 297 km2 and sits on the shores of Lake Victoria. The city is divided into two …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Tumkur, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tumkur (also known as Tumakuru) is located along the Pune-Bangalore National Highway N°4. The sewerage network covers half of the population, but there is also a high dependence on septic tanks, …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Solapur, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Solapur is located on the south-eastern border of Maharashtra State. The population of the city is 951,118 persons. One-fifth of city’s population depends on public toilets while septic tanks and …

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Hassib, Y., 2015

SFD Report - Yei, South Sudan SFD Promotion Initiative

Providing water and sanitation to Yei population is one of the concerns of the government, considering that around 60% of the households use pit latrines with minimal stability, mud floor and low …

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Gunawan, A., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Khulna, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Khulna is located in the south-western part of Bangladesh, with a population of 1.5 million and a total area of 46 km2. Its National policy and strategy documents encourage both NGOs and the private …

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Harada, H., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Nonthaburi, Thailand SFD Promotion Initiative

Nonthaburi City Municipality is the principal city of Nonthaburi province, located to the north of Bangkok. It has a registered population of 256,457 in the area of 38.9 km2 (NCM 2015a). Most of the …

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Harada, H., Schoebitz, L., Strande, L., 2015

SFD Report - Danang, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Danang is located at the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is the fourth most populated city in the country with approximately 1,007,400 inhabitants in 2014 (GSO 2015). The total land area of the …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.1 Santa Cruz, Bolivia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.2 Tegucigalpa, Honduras Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.3 Managua, Nicaragua Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.4 Maputo, Mozambique Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.5 Dakar, Senegal Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.6 Kampala, Uganda Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.8 Delhi, India Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.9 Phnom Penh, Cambodia Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.11 Dumaguete, Philippines Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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Peal, A. et al., 2015

A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - Annex A.12 Manila, Philippines Unpublished Report (Final Draft)

Excerpt from the report 'A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities’ by The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program. The full report examines global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Srikakulam India Draft

Srikakulam is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and is an important administrative and commercial center. The population of city is 133,911 persons. Lack of sewerage network, sewage treatment …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Cuttack India Draft

Cuttack lies in the east coast plains of India; it is the capital and one of the oldest cities of Odisha. Population of the city reaches 606,007 persons, who are mainly dependent on malfunctioning …

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CSE, 2015

SFD Executive Summary Aizawl India Draft

Aizawl is the capital of Mizoram State located in the east of the Himalayan region of India. The density of the city, 2,823 persons per sq. km, is higher compared to state average, 52 persons per sq. …

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Hassib, Y., Roeder, L., 2015

SFD Report - Moshi, Tanzania SFD Promotion Initiative

Moshi municipality is an administrative district in Kilimanjaro province whose population has growth from less than 10,000 to 185, 000 residents. The majority of households depend on on-site …

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Roeder, L., 2016

SFD Report - Kochi, India SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Kochi (also known as 'Cochin') is the touristic and economic capital of the state of Kerala located in the south-west region of India. The municipal boundary of the Corporation Cochin …

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Furlong, C., Mensah, A., 2015

SFD Report - Kumasi, Ghana SFD Promotion Initiative

Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana and lies in the Ashanti Region in the south of the country (Adarkwa, 2011). The city covers approximately 254 sq. km. It has an approximately population of …

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Furlong, C., 2015

SFD Report - Nakuru, Kenya SFD Promotion Initiative

Nakuru is the fourth largest town in Kenya, lying within the Rift Valley and covering an area of 290 km2. Less than 30% of the population is served by the sewerage network, while the majority of the …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Srikakulam, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Srikakulam is a coastal city located in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). It is the district headquarters and is an important administrative and commercial centre. It is one of the oldest …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Aizawl, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Aizawl, capital of Mizoram state, lies in east Himalayan region of India. It is the largest city of the state. Area under municipal council, which is 103.93 sq.km, has been chosen for the study. …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Cuttack, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Cuttack city, lies in east coast plains of India, is the former capital and one of the oldest cities of Odisha, established in 1876 as municipality. It is the district headquarter and is situated at …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Bikaner, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Sixty-four percent of Bikaner’s city (population of 644,406 people) depends on offsite systems, 31% depends on onsite sanitation systems (OSS), mainly septic tanks, while 5% of population practices …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Gwalior, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Gwalior is a historical city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. There is sewerage network covering around 80% of the population. In spite having good sewerage network within the city only 19% of …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Agra, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Agra, the former capital of India is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. There is sewerage network which covers half of the population. Rest of the city is …

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Rohilla, S. K., Luthra, B., Varma, R. S., Padhi S. K., 2016

SFD Report - Tiruchirappalli, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tiruchirappalli, also known as Trichy, is one of the largest cities in Tamil Nadu and is known as an important trade, education and pilgrimage centre. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is …

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Brandes, K. et al., 2015

SFD Report - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania SFD Promotion Initiative

Dar es Salaam lies on the coast of the Indian Ocean and is the largest city and economic hub of Tanzania (DCC, 2004). The 2015 population is estimated to have reached more than 5 million inhabitants …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Dewas, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Dewas city is located on the Malwa plateau of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is headquarters of the Dewas district. The population of city as per the 2011 Census is …

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Rohilla, S. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Delhi, India

Delhi is the capital of India. It is officially known as the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The population of NCT of Delhi as per the Census 2011 is 16,787,941. The …

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Brandes, K. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Hanoi, Vietnam SFD Promotion Initiative

Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is located in the Northern part of the country in the Red river delta. The urban districts cover an area of 304 km² with an estimated population of 3,147,000 …

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Ndounla, J. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Bignona, Senegal SFD Promotion Initiative

Bignona and Tenghory Trans-Gambian are in the region of Casamance, Senegal. The study area is comprised of seven districts (six in Bignona, one is the neighboring district ofTenghory Trans-Gambian in …

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Cross, X.; Buckley, C., 2016

SFD Report - Durban, South Africa SFD Promotion Initiative

The city of Durban is managed by the eThekwini Municipality, which covers a wider area including 55% urban and 45% rural sectors. In 2015 the population was estimated from projections of the last …

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Roeder, L., 2016

SFD Report (draft) - Tirupati, India SFD Promotion Initiative

Tirupati is situated in Chittoor district in the southern of the state of Andhra Pradesh with a total population of just under 375,000. The town is a pilgrimage center and attracts a total diurnal …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Hawassa, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Hawassa is the capital of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency estimates that the population of Hawassa is 351,469 and it has …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Lima, Peru SFD Promotion Initiative

Lima the capital of Peru and the third largest city in Latin America covering an area of 2,700 km2. Metropolitan Lima consists of the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao and is …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Dhaka, Bangladesh SFD Promotion Initiative

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of world's most populated cities. ‘Dhaka City’ is defined in this report as the areas under the jurisdiction of the two Dhaka City Corporations. They cover …

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Veses, O. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Bishoftu, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Axum is located in the state of Oromia, Ethiopia, approximately 47 km south east of Addis Ababa. Its topography is undulating and characterized by flat land on the north and east parts of the city, …

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Veses, O. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Bure, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Bure is located 400 km north of the capital Addis Ababa and 148 km south west of Bahir Dar and is within the Amhara State, Western Gojjam Administrative Zone of Ethiopia. It has a total urban …

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Furlong, C., 2016

SFD Report - Santa Cruz, Bolivia SFD Promotion Initiative

Santa Cruz de la Serria Metropolitan Area (SCMA) is the second largest urban area in Bolivia. It is a major economic centre in Bolivia. There are approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in SCMA. The …

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Veses, O., et al., 2016

SFD Report - Bahir Dar, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Bahir Dar is a city located northwest Ethiopia with a tropical savannah climate. According to the Town Administration, the population is 318,429 people, where 85% live in the urban and 15% in the …

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Veses, O. et al., 2016

SFD Report - Holleta, Ethiopia SFD Promotion Initiative

Holleta is an Ethiopian city located in the Oromia region at a distance of 35 Km from Addis Ababa, lying between levations of 2,320 and 2,460 meters above sea level. The average rainfall in Holleta …

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Eawag-Sandec, 2018

SFD Report - Tikapur, Nepal

Tikapur is a municipality of over 60,000 inhabitants (56,136, 2011 census), located on the right bank of the Karnali river in the Terai district of Kailali, far western region. It is a “new town” …

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Population Services International (PSI), 2018

SFD Report - Patna, India

Patna, the state capital of Bihar, is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River. The city is surrounded by two other rivers on two other sides: Sone River and Pun-Pun River. Patna is the second …