Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana and lies in the Ashanti Region in the south of the country (Adarkwa, 2011). The city covers approximately 254 sq. km. It has an approximately population of 2.7 million with an annual growth rate of 5.5% (City Population, 2015, World Bank, 2008). A high percentage of the population of Kumasi is reliant on public toilets that are properly regulated by KMA (39%, GSS 2013) and the number of open defecators is relatively small (3%, GSS 2013). Despite this, 45% of the faecal sludge generated in Kumasi remains unsafety managed.
The excreta flow diagram (SFD) was created through field based research by the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) as part of the SFD Promotion Initiative with the Support of the Waste Management Department of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA)
Date of production: 27/10/2015
Last update: 16/11/2015
Keywords Kumasi, SFD, KMA, excreta management, MGDs, low income areas, public toilet
Author(s) Furlong, C., Mensah, A.
Published in: 2015
Publisher Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), United Kingdom
The Centre for Science and Environment is launching an online course on the preparation of Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs). You can find out more on their website and apply by June 10th.
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Check out how the city of Patna, located at the Southern banks of river Ganga, manages its sanitation!
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Find out more on the sanitation practices in Tikapur:
98% on-site sanitation technologies (pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas digesters)
2% open defecation
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